Nock, MK, Self-injury. Annu Rev Clin Psychol, 2010; 6: 339–363. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131258.
Swannell, SV, Martin, GE, Page, A, Hasking, P, St John, NJ, Prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury in nonclinical samples: systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. Suicide Life-Threatening Behav, 2014; 44: 273–303. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12070.
Briere, J, Gil, E, Self-mutilation in clinical and general population samples: prevalence, correlates, and functions. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 1998; 68: 609–620.
Cloutier, P, Martin, J, Kennedy, A, Nixon, MK, Muehlenkamp, JJ, Characteristics and co-occurrence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviours in pediatric emergency crisis services. J Youth Adolesc, 2010; 39: 259–269. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9465-1.
Darche, M, Psychological factors differentiating self-mutilating and non-self-mutilating adolescent inpatient females. Psychiatr Hosp, 1990; 21: 31–35.
Hamza, CA, Stewart, SL, Willoughby, T, Examining the link between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior: a review of the literature and an integrated model. Clin Psychol Rev, 2012; 32: 482–495. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.05.003.
Asarnow, JR, Porta, G, Spirito, A, Emslie, G, Clarke, G, Wagner, KD, et al., Suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents: findings from the TORDIA study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 2011; 50: 772–781.
Ribeiro, JD, Franklin, JC, Fox, KR, Bentley, KH, Kleiman, EM, Chang, BP, et al., Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors as risk factors for future suicide ideation, attempts, and death: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychol Med, 2016; 46: 225–236. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291715001804.
Wilkinson, P, Kelvin, R, Roberts, C, Dubicka, B, Goodyer, I, Clinical and psychosocial predictors of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury in the Adolescent Depression Antidepressants and Psychotherapy Trial (ADAPT). Am J Psychiatry, 2011; 168: 495–501. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10050718.
Gratz, KL, Roemer, L, Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. J Psychopathol Behav Assess, 2004; 26: 41–54. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94. Mennin, DS, Holaway, RM, Fresco, DM, Moore, MT, Heimberg, RG, Delineating components of emotion and its dysregulation in anxiety and mood psychopathology. Behav Ther, 2007; 38: 284–302. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2006.09.001.
Thompson, RA, Emotion regulation: a theme in search of definition. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev, 1994; 59: 25–52.
Perez, J, Venta, A, Garnaat, S, Sharp, C, The difficulties in emotion regulation scale: factor structure and association with nonsuicidal self-injury in adolescent inpatients. J Psychopathol Behav Assess, 2012; 34: 393–404. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-012-9292-7. Aldao, A, Gee, DG, De Los Reyes, A, Seager, I, Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic factor in the development of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology: current and future directions. Dev Psychopathol, 2016; 28: 927–946. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579416000638.
Compas, BE, Jaser, SS, Bettis, AH, Watson, KH, Gruhn, MA, Dunbar, JP, et al., Coping, emotion regulation, and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analysis and narrative review. Psychol Bull; 2017: 143(9)939.
Ochsner, KN, Ray, RR, Hughes, B, McRae, K, Cooper, JC, Weber, J, et al., Bottom-up and top-down processes in emotion generation: common and distinct neural mechanisms. Psychol Sci; 2009: 20(11)1322–1331.
Phillips, ML, Ladouceur, CD, Drevets, WC, A neural model of voluntary and automatic emotion regulation: implications for understanding the pathophysiology and neurodevelopment of bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry, 2008; 13(9): 833.
Gross, JJ, Emotion regulation in adulthood: timing is everything. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 2001; 10: 214–219. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00152.
Gross, JJ, John, OP, Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol, 2003; 85: 348–362. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.118.
Brown, MZ, Comtois, KA, Linehan, MM, Reasons for suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury in women with borderline personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol, 2002; 111: 198–202.
Chapman, AL, Gratz, KL, Brown, MZ, Solving the puzzle of deliberate self-harm: the experiential avoidance model. Behav Res Ther, 2006; 44: 371–394.
Linehan, M, Cognitive behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. Guilford Press, 1993.
Selby, EA, Joiner, TE, Cascades of emotion: the emergence of borderline personality disorder from emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Rev Gen Psychol, 2009; 13: 219–229. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015687. Fox, KR, Franklin, JC, Ribeiro, JD, Kleiman, EM, Bentley, KH, Nock, MK, Meta-analysis of risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury. Clin Psychol Rev, 2015; 42: 156–167. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.09.002. Wolff, JC, Davis, S, Liu, RT, Cha, CB, Cheek, SM, Nestor, BA, et al., Trajectories of suicidal ideation among adolescents following psychiatric hospitalization. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 2018; 46: 355–363. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0293-6.
Borenstein, M, Hedges, L, Higgins, J, Rothstein, H, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3, Englewood, NJ: Biostat, 2013.
Anderson, NL, Crowther, JH, Using the experiential avoidance model of non-suicidal self-injury: understanding who stops and who continues. Arch Suicide Res, 2012; 16: 124–134. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2012.667329. Anestis, MD, Kleiman, EM, Lavender, JM, Tull, MT, Gratz, KL, The pursuit of death versus escape from negative affect: an examination of the nature of the relationship between emotion dysregulation and both suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury. Compr Psychiatry, 2014; 55: 1820–1830. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.07.007. Arbuthnott, AE, Lewis, SP, Bailey, HN, Rumination and emotions in nonsuicidal self-injury and eating disorder behaviors: a preliminary test of the emotional cascade model. J Clin Psychol, 2015; 71: 62–71. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22115. Bjureberg, J, Ljótsson, B, Tull, MT, Hedman, E, Sahlin, H, Lundh, L-G, et al., Development and validation of a brief version of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale: the DERS-16. J Psychopathol Behav Assess, 2016; 38: 284–296. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-015-9514-x. Bracken-Minor, KL, McDevitt-Murphy, ME, Differences in features of non-suicidal self-injury according to borderline personality disorder screening status. Arch Suicide Res, 2014; 18: 88–103. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2013.809040. Buckholdt, KE, Parra, GR, Anestis, MD, Lavender, JM, Jobe-Shields, LE, Tull, MT, et al., Emotion regulation difficulties and maladaptive behaviors: examination of deliberate self-harm, disordered eating, and substance misuse in two samples. Cognit Ther Res, 2015; 39: 140–152. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-014-9655-3.
Burke, TA, Stange, JP, Hamilton, JL, Cohen, JN, O’Garro-Moore, J, Daryanani, I, et al., Cognitive and emotion-regulatory mediators of the relationship between behavioral approach system sensitivity and nonsuicidal self-injury frequency. Suicide Life-Threatening Behav, 2015; 45: 495–504. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12145.
Cerutti, R, Presaghi, F, Manca, M, Gratz, KL, Deliberate self-harm behavior among Italian young adults: correlations with clinical and nonclinical dimensions of personality. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 2012; 82: 298–308. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01169.x.
Chaplo, SD, Kerig, PK, Bennett, DC, Modrowski, CA, The roles of emotion dysregulation and dissociation in the association between sexual abuse and self-injury among juvenile justice–Involved youth. J Trauma Dissociation, 2015; 16: 272–285. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2015.989647.
Duggan, J, Heath, N, Hu, T, Non-suicidal self-injury maintenance and cessation among adolescents: a one-year longitudinal investigation of the role of objectified body consciousness, depression and emotion dysregulation. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health, 2015; 9: 21, doi: 10.1186/s13034-015-0052-9.
Emery, AA, Heath, NL, Mills, DJ, Basic psychological need satisfaction, emotion dysregulation, and non-suicidal self-injury engagement in young adults: an application of self-determination theory. J Youth Adolesc, 2016; 45: 612–623. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0405-y.
Franklin, JC, Puzia, ME, Lee, KM, Lee, GE, Hanna, EK, Spring, VL, et al., The nature of pain offset relief in nonsuicidal self-injury. Clin Psychol Sci, 2013; 1: 110–119. doi: 10.1177/2167702612474440.
Gardner, KJ, Dodsworth, J, Selby, EA, Borderline personality traits, rumination, and self-injurious behavior: an empirical test of the emotional cascades model in adult male offenders. J Forensic Psychol Pract, 2014; 14: 398–417. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15228932.2014.962379.
Gómez-Expósito, A, Wolz, I, Fagundo, AB, Granero, R, Steward, T, Jiménez-Murcia, S, et al., Correlates of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in bulimic Spectrum disorders. Front Psychol, 2016; 7: 1244, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01244.
Gratz, KL, Chapman, AL, The role of emotional responding and childhood maltreatment in the development and maintenance of deliberate self-harm among male undergraduates. Psychol Men Masc, 2007; 8: 1–14. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1524-918.104.22.168. Gratz, KL, Roemer, L, The relationship between emotion dysregulation and deliberate self‐harm among female undergraduate students at an urban commuter university. Cogn Behav Ther, 2008; 37: 14–25. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16506070701819524. Gratz, KL, Tull, MT, The relationship between emotion dysregulation and deliberate self-harm among inpatients with substance use disorders. Cognit Ther Res, 2010; 34: 544–553. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9268-4.
Gratz, KL, Breetz, A, Tull, MT, The moderating role of borderline personality in the relationships between deliberate self‐harm and emotion‐related factors. Personal Ment Health, 2010; 4(2): 96–107.
Muehlenkamp, JJ, Bagge, CL, Tull, MT, Gratz, KL, Body regard as a moderator of the relation between emotion dysregulation and nonsuicidal self-injury. Suicide Life-Threatening Behav, 2013; 4310.1111/sltb.12032., n/a-n/a.
Hasking, P, Momeni, R, Swannell, S, Chia, S, The nature and extent of non-suicidal self-injury in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Arch Suicide Res, 2008; 12: 208–218. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13811110802100957. Hasking, PA, Coric, SJ, Swannell, S, Martin, G, Thompson, HK, Frost, ADJ, Brief report: emotion regulation and coping as moderators in the relationship between personality and self-injury. J Adolesc, 2010; 33: 767–773. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.12.006.
Heath, N, Toste, J, Nedecheva, T, Charlebois, A, An examination of nonsuicidal self-injury among college students. J Ment Health Couns, 2008; 30: 137–156. doi: 10.17744/mehc.30.2.8p879p3443514678.
Kleiman, EM, Ammerman, BA, Kulper, DA, Uyeji, LL, Jenkins, AL, McCloskey, MS, Forms of non-suicidal self-injury as a function of trait aggression. Compr Psychiatry, 2015; 59: 21–27. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.12.004. Kranzler, A, Fehling, KB, Anestis, MD, Selby, EA, Emotional dysregulation, internalizing symptoms, and self-injurious and suicidal behavior: structural equation modeling analysis. Death Stud, 2016; 40: 358–366. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2016.1145156.
Lear, MK, Pepper, CM, Self-concept clarity and emotion dysregulation in nonsuicidal self-injury. J Pers Dis, 2016; 30: 813–827. doi: 10.1521/pedi_2015_29_232.
Levesque, C, Lafontaine, M-F, Bureau, J-F, The mediating effects of emotion regulation and dyadic coping on the relationship between romantic attachment and non-suicidal self-injury. J Youth Adolesc, 2017; 46: 277–287. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0547-6. Martin, A, White, H, Flanagan, TJ, Yensel, NH, Bloomberg, TV, A multisite study of the association between emotion dysregulation and deliberate self-harm among substance use disorder inpatients. Addict Disord Their Treat, 2011; 10: 191–198. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ADT.0b013e318223fc9e. Muehlenkamp, JJ, Kerr, PL, Bradley, AR, Larsen, MA, Abuse subtypes and nonsuicidal self-injury: preliminary evidence of complex emotion regulation patterns. J Nerv Ment Dis, 2010; 198: 258–263. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181d612ab.
Muehlenkamp, JJ, Peat, CM, Claes, L, Smits, D, Self-injury and disordered eating: expressing emotion dysregulation through the body. Suicide Life-Threatening Behav, 2012; 42: 416–425. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.2012.00100.x.
Navarro-Haro, MV, Wessman, I, Botella, C, García-Palacios, A, The role of emotion regulation strategies and dissociation in non-suicidal self-injury for women with borderline personality disorder and comorbid eating disorder. Compr Psychiatry, 2015; 63: 123–130. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2015.09.001.
Sharp, C, Ha, C, Michonski, J, Venta, A, Carbone, C, Borderline personality disorder in adolescents: evidence in support of the Childhood Interview for DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. Compr Psychiatry, 2012; 53(6): 765–774.
Peters, JR, Smart, LM, Baer, RA, Dysfunctional responses to emotion mediate the cross-sectional relationship between rejection sensitivity and borderline personality features. J Pers Disord, 2015; 29: 231–240. doi: 10.1521/pedi_2014_28_151.
Preyde, M, Vanderkooy, J, Chevalier, P, Heintzman, J, Warne, A, Barrick, K, The psychosocial characteristics associated with NSSI and suicide attempt of youth admitted to an in-patient psychiatric unit. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 2014; 23: 100–110.
Selby, EA, Anestis, MD, Bender, TW, Joiner, TE, An exploration of the emotional cascade model in borderline personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol, 2009; 118: 375–387. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015711. Somma, A, Sharp, C, Borroni, S, Fossati, A, Borderline personality disorder features, emotion dysregulation and non-suicidal self-injury: preliminary findings in a sample of community-dwelling Italian adolescents. Personal Ment Health, 2017; 11: 23–32. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1353.
Tatnell, R, Kelada, L, Hasking, P, Martin, G, Longitudinal analysis of adolescent NSSI: the role of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 2014; 42(6): 885–896.
Voon, D, Hasking, P, Martin, G, The roles of emotion regulation and ruminative thoughts in non-suicidal self-injury. Br J Clin Psychol, 2014; 53: 95–113. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12030.
Turner, BJ, Yiu, A, Layden, BK, Claes, L, Zaitsoff, S, Chapman, AL, Temporal associations between disordered eating and nonsuicidal self-injury: examining symptom overlap over 1 year. Behav Ther, 2015; 46: 125–138. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2014.09.002. Vieira, AI, Ramalho, S, Brandão, I, Saraiva, J, Gonçalves, S, Adversity, emotion regulation, and non-suicidal self-injury in eating disorders. Eat Disord, 2016; 24: 440–452. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2016.1198205. Wilcox, HC, Arria, AM, Caldeira, KM, Vincent, KB, Pinchevsky, GM, O’Grady, KE, Longitudinal predictors of past-year non-suicidal self-injury and motives among college students. Psychol Med, 2012; 42: 717–726. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291711001814. Williams, F, Hasking, P, Emotion regulation, coping and alcohol use as moderators in the relationship between non-suicidal self-injury and psychological distress. Prev Sci, 2010; 11: 33–41. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-009-0147-8. Yurkowski, K, Martin, J, Levesque, C, Bureau, J-F, Lafontaine, M-F, Cloutier, P, Emotion dysregulation mediates the influence of relationship difficulties on non-suicidal self-injury behavior in young adults. Psychiatry Res, 2015; 228: 871–878. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.006.
Zelkowitz, RL, Cole, DA, Han, GT, Tomarken, AJ, The incremental utility of emotion regulation but not emotion reactivity in nonsuicidal self-injury. Suicide Life-Threatening Behav, 2016; 46: 545–562. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12236.
Schäfer, JÖ, Naumann, E, Holmes, EA, Tuschen-Caffier, B, Samson, AC, Emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth: a meta-analytic review. J Youth Adolesc, 2017; 46(2): 261–276.
García-Nieto, R, Carballo, JJ, de Neira Hernando, M Díaz, de León-Martinez, V, Baca-García, E, Clinical correlates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in an outpatient sample of adolescents. Arch Suicide Res, 2015; 19: 218–230. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2014.957447. Lloyd-Richardson, EE, Perrine, N, Dierker, L, Kelley, ML, Characteristic and functions on non-suicidal self-injury in a community sample of adolescents. Psychol Med, 2007; 37: 1183–1192. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329170700027X.
Folkman, S, Moskowitz, JT, Coping: pitfalls and promise. Annu Rev Psychol, 2004; 55: 745–774.
Beauchaine, TP, Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: a transdiagnostic biomarker of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Curr Opin Psychol, 2015; 3: 43–47.
Wielgus, MD, Aldrich, JT, Mezulis, AH, Crowell, SE, Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. Int J Psychophysiol, 2016; 106: 127–134. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.05.005.
Laborde, S, Mosley, E, Thayer, JF, Heart rate variability and cardiac vagal tone in psychophysiological research – recommendations for experiment planning, data analysis, and data reporting. Front Psychol, 2017; 8: 213, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00213.
Franklin, JC, Hessel, ET, Aaron, RV, Arthur, MS, Heilbron, N, Prinstein, MJ, The functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: support for cognitive–affective regulation and opponent processes from a novel psychophysiological paradigm. J Abnorm Psychol, 2010; 119: 850–862. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020896. Glenn, CR, Blumenthal, TD, Klonsky, ED, Hajcak, G, Emotional reactivity in nonsuicidal self-injury: divergence between self-report and startle measures. Int J Psychophysiol, 2011; 80: 166–170. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.02.016. Kaess, M, Hille, M, Parzer, P, Maser-Gluth, C, Resch, F, Brunner, R, Alterations in the neuroendocrinological stress response to acute psychosocial stress in adolescents engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2012; 37: 157–161. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.05.009.
Crowell, SE, Butner, J, Wiltshire, TJ, Munion, AK, Yaptangco, M, Beauchaine, TP, Evaluating emotional and biological sensitivity to maternal behavior among depressed and self-injuring adolescent girls using nonlinear dynamics. Clin Psychol Sci, 2017; 5: 272–285.
Stange, JP, Hamilton, JL, Fresco, DM, Alloy, LB, Flexible parasympathetic responses to sadness facilitate spontaneous affect regulation. Psychophysiology, 2017; 54(7): 1054–1069.
Yaroslavsky, I, Rottenberg, J, Bylsma, LM, Jennings, JR, George, C, Baji, I, et al., Parasympathetic nervous system activity predicts mood repair use and its effectiveness among adolescents with and without histories of major depression. J Abnorm Psychol; 2016: 125(3)323.
Pagliaccio, D, Luby, JL, Luking, KR, Belden, AC, Barch, DM, Brain–behavior relationships in the experience and regulation of negative emotion in healthy children: implications for risk for childhood depression. Dev Psychopathol, 2014; 26 4 pt 2 1289–1303.
Sheppes, G, Scheibe, S, Suri, G, Radu, P, Blechert, J, Gross, JJ, Emotion regulation choice: a conceptual framework and supporting evidence. J Exp Psychol Gen, 2014; 143(1): 163.
Kraemer, HC, Kazdin, AE, Offord, DR, Kessler, RC, Jensen, PS, Kupfer, DJ, Coming to terms with the terms of risk. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1997; 54: 337–343.
Nock, MK, Prinstein, MJ, Sterba, SK, Revealing the form and function of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors: a real-time ecological assessment study among adolescents and young adults. J Abnorm Psychol, 2009; 118(4): 816–827. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016948. Solhan, MB, Trull, TJ, Jahng, S, Wood, PK, Clinical assessment of affective instability: comparing EMA indices, questionnaire reports, and retrospective recall. Psychol Assess, 2009; 21: 425–436. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016869.