To document patient characteristics and treatment patterns in a real-world population diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
This was a retrospective chart review of children/adolescents (6–17 years) diagnosed with ADHD in the UK, Germany and Netherlands who initiated stimulant monotherapy (SM), non-stimulant (atomoxetine) monotherapy (NSM) or polypharmacy (SM/NSM ± SM/NSM or other psychotropics) on/after 1-1-2012. To facilitate descriptive comparisons, cohort quotas were imposed: ∼50% SM; ∼25% NSM; ∼25% polypharmacy. Index date was first SM, NSM or polypharmacy treatment on/after 1-1-2012. Patients were required to have ≥ 6 months’ pre-index (baseline) history and ≥ 12 months’ post-index follow-up. Analyses were descriptive.
In total, 497 patients were included (mean [SD] age: 10.8 [2.9] years; 77% male); 65% (SM), 63% (NSM) and 83% (polypharmacy) had at least marked baseline ADHD severity based on Clinical Global Impressions scale (P < 0.05 SM/NSM vs polypharmacy). Ninety percent (SM), 75% (NSM) and 73% (polypharmacy) were pharmacotherapy naïve at index (all P < 0.10); 61% (SM), 65% (NSM) and 72% (polypharmacy) received previous behavioural therapy. In SM patients, methylphenidate was predominant (most frequent brands: Concerta® [29%], Medikinet® [28%]); in polypharmacy patients, methylphenidate plus atomoxetine (22%) or other psychotropic (19%) was most common. Index therapy switch was common, particularly in polypharmacy patients (25%) (P < 0.05 vs SM [14%] and NSM [13%]). Switches were precipitated by poor response in 75% of cases overall.
Polypharmacy patients generally presented a more complicated history (including higher ADHD severity) and treatment pathway versus monotherapy patients. Index therapy switches were commonplace and more frequent in polypharmacy patients, often due to poor response.
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.