Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Adolescent attachment styles and their relation to the temperament and character traits of personality in a general population

  • Jayanti Chotai (a1), Mattias Jonasson (a1), Bruno Hägglöf (a2) and Rolf Adolfsson (a1)

Abstract

Attachment styles as well as personality traits in adolescents and adults have been found to be associated with their health outcomes and with their personality pathology. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, we study the relationship between attachment styles that derive from our data employing the items of Feeney et al. (1994) self-report attachment style questionnaire (ASQ), and personality traits given by the junior version of Cloninger et al. (1993) self-report temperament and character inventory (TCI), in a sample of 426 adolescents (54% females) from a general population. The secure attachment style was correlated significantly negatively with the personality trait harm avoidance (HA), but significantly positively with the personality traits novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), cooperativeness (CO) and self-transcendence (ST). The preoccupied (anxious/ambivalent) attachment style was correlated significantly positively with HA and NS, but significantly negatively with self-directedness (SD). The fearful-avoidant category was correlated significantly negatively with NS. Our five-factor solution of the attachment styles and their relation to the TCI point towards a need for a modification of the two-axis, four-category attachment model of Bartholomew (1990) and Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991), with their category dismissing-avoidant replaced by the two categories defined here as dismissing relations (correlated significantly negatively with CO) and dismissing others (correlated significantly negatively with RD and significantly positively with SD).

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Tel.: +46 90 78 50000; fax: +46 90 13 5324. E-mail address: jayanti.chotai@vll.se (J. Chotai).

References

Hide All
[1]Ainsworth, MDS, Blehar, MC, Waters, E, Wall, SPatterns of attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1978.
[2]Alexander, PC, Anderson, CL, Brand, B, Schaeffer, CM, Grelling, BZ, Kretz, LAdult attachment and longterm effects in survivors of incest. Child Abuse Negl 1998;22:4561.
[3]Bäckström, M, Holmes, BMMeasuring adult attachment: a construct validation of two self-report instruments. Scand J Psychol 2001;42:7986.
[4]Barbara, AM, Dion, KLBreaking up is hard to do, especially for strongly ”preoccupied” lovers. J Pers Interpers Loss 2000;5:315342.
[5]Bartholomew, KAvoidance of intimacy: an attachment perspective. J Soc Pers Relat 1990;7:147178.
[6]Bartholomew, K, Horowitz, LMAttachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model. J Pers Soc Psychol 1991;61:226244.
[7]Bifulco, A, Moran, PM, Ball, C, Lillie, AAdult attachment style. II: its relationship to psychosocial depressive-vulnerability. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2002;37:6067.
[8]Bowlby, JAttachment and loss: attachment. New York: Basic Books; 1969.
[9]Bowlby, JAttachment and loss: vol 2Separation New York: Basic Books; 1973.
[10]Bowlby, JAttachment and loss: vol 3Loss, sadness and depression New York: Basic Books; 1980.
[11]Brändström, S, Schlette, P, Przybeck, TR, Lundberg, M, Forsgren, T, Sigvardsson, Set al.Swedish normative data on personality using the temperament and character inventory. Compr. Psychiatry 1998;39:122128.
[12]Carlson, V, Cicchetti, D, Barnett, D, Braunwald, KDisorganized/disoriented attachment relationships in maltreated infants. Dev Psychol 1989;25:525531.
[13]Chotai, J, Jonasson, M, Hägglöf, B, Adolfsson, RThe temperament scale of novelty seeking in adolescents shows an association with season of birth opposite to that in adults. Psychiatry Res 2002;111:4554.
[14]Ciechanowski, PS, Walker, EA, Katon, WJ, Russo, JEAttachment theory: a model for health care utilization and somatization. Psychosom Med 2002;64:660667.
[15]Cloninger, CR, Svrakic, DM, Przybeck, TRA psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50:975990.
[16]Collins, NL, Read, SJAdult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. J Pers Soc Psychol 1990;58:644663.
[17]Collins, NL, Cooper, LM, Albino, A, Allard, LPsychosocial vulnerability from adolescence to adulthood: a prospective study of attachment style differences in relationship functioning and partner choice. J Pers 2002;70:9651008.
[18]Constantino, JN, Cloninger, CR, Clarke, AR, Hashemi, B, Przybeck, TApplication of the seven-factor model of personality to early childhood. Psychiatry Res 2002;109:229243.
[19]De Fruyt, F, Van de Wiele, L, Van Heeringen, CCloninger’s psychobiological model of temperament and character and the five-factor model of personality. Pers Indiv Differ 2000;29:441452.
[20]Diehl, M, Elnick, AB, Bourbeau, LS, Labouvie-Vief, GAdult attachment styles: their relations to family context and personality. J Pers Soc Psychol 1998;74:16561669.
[21]Farmer, A, Mahmood, A, Redman, K, Harris, T, Sadler, S, McGuffin, PA sib-pair study of the temperament and character inventory scales in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60:490496.
[22]Feeney, JA, Noller, P, Hanrahan, MAssessing adult attachment. Sperling, MB, Berman, WHAttachment in adults: clinical and developmental perspectives New York: Guilford Press; 1994. 128152.
[23]Fonagy, P, Leigh, T, Steele, M, Steele, H, Kennedy, R, Mattoon, Get al.The relation of attachment status, psychiatric classification, and response to psychotherapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996;64:2231.
[24]Fonagy, P, Target, M, Gergely, GAttachment and borderline personality disorder: a theory and some evidence. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2000;23:103122.
[25]Griffin, D, Bartholomew, KModels of self and other. Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. J Pers Soc Psychol 1994;67:430435.
[26]Griffin, DW, Bartholomew, KThe metaphysics of measurement: the case of adult attachment. Adv Pers Relat 1994;5:1752.
[27]Gutierrez, F, Torrens, M, Boget, T, Martin-Santos, R, Sangorrin, J, Perez, Get al.Psychometric properties of the temperament and character inventory (TCI) questionnaire in a Spanish psychiatric population. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001;103:143147.
[28]Hazan, C, Shaver, PConceptualizing romantic love as an attachment process. J Pers Soc. Psychol 1987;52:511524.
[29]Hirano, S, Sato, T, Narita, T, Kusunoki, K, Ozaki, K, Kimura, Set al.Evaluating the state dependency of the temperament and character inventory dimensions in patients with major depression: a methodological contribution. J Affect Disord 2002;69:3138.
[30]Jiang, N, Sato, T, Hara, T, Takedomi, Y, Ozaki, I, Yamada, SCorrelations between trait anxiety, personality and fatigue: study based on the temperament and character inventory. J Psychosom Res 2003;55:493500.
[31]Jonasson, M, Forsgren, T, Marklund, L, Hägglöf, B, Adolfsson, R Adolescents’ personality development: a normative study of the Swedish version of the junior temperament and character inventory (JTCI). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005(in press)
[32]Luby, JL, Svrakic, DM, McCallum, K, Przybeck, TR, Cloninger, CRThe junior temperament and character inventory: preliminary validation of a child self-report measure. Psychol Rep 1999;84:11271138.
[33]Lyons-Ruth, K, Jacobvitz, DAttachment disorganization Unresolved loss, relational violence, and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategiesCassidy, J, Shaver, PRHandbook of attachment New York: Guildford Press; 1999. 520554.
[34]Lyoo, IK, Yoon, T, Kang, DH, Kwon, JSPatterns of changes in temperament and character inventory scales in subjects with obsessive–compulsive disorder following a 4-month treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2003;107:298304.
[35]Lyoo, IK, Han, CH, Lee, SJ, Yune, SK, Ha, JH, Chung, SJet al.The reliability and validity of the junior temperament and character inventory. Compr Psychiatry 2004;45:121128.
[36]Main, MIntroduction to the special section on attachment and psychopathology: 2. Overview of the field of attachment. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996;64:237243.
[37]Main, M, Solomon, JDiscovery of a new, insecure-disorganized-disoriented attachment pattern. Brazelton, TB, Yogman, MAffective development in infancy. Norwood, NJ: Albex; 1986. 95124.
[38]Marteinsdottir, I, Tillfors, M, Furmark, T, Anderberg, UM, Ekselius, LPersonality dimensions measured by the temperament and character inventory (TCI) in subjects with social phobia. Nord J Psychiatry 2003;57:2935.
[39]Mikulincer, M, Florian, V, Tolmacz, RAttachment styles and fear of personal death: a case study of affect regulation. J Pers Soc Psychol 1990;58:273280.
[40]Myers, SAPersonality correlates of adult attachment style. J Soc Psychol 1998;138:407409.
[41]Nakash-Eisikovits, O, Dutra, L, Westen, DRelationship between attachment patterns and personality pathology in adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002;41:11111123.
[42]Parker, G, Hadzi-Pavlovic, D, Parker, K, Malhi, G, Mitchell, P, Wilhelm, Ket al.An Australian validation study of the temperament and character inventory. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2003;108:359366.
[43]Pelissolo, A, Lepine, JPNormative data and factor structure of the temperament and character inventory (TCI) in the French version. Psychiatry Res 2000;94:6776.
[44]Reti, IM, Samuels, JF, Eaton, WW, Bienvenu, OJ, Costa, PT, Nestadt, GInfluences of parenting on personality traits. Psychiatry Res 3rd 2002;111:5464.
[45]Rowatt, WC, Kirkpatrick, LATwo dimensions of attachment to God and their relation to affect, religiosity, and personality constructs. J Sci Study Relig 2002;41:637651.
[46]Shaver, PR, Brennan, KAAttachment styles and the big 5 personality traits—their connections with each other and with romantic relationship outcomes. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 1992;18:536545.
[47]SPSS Base System Syntax Reference Guide. Release 7.5 Chicago: SPSS Inc.; 1996.
[48]Stein, H, Jacobs, NJ, Ferguson, KS, Allen, JG, Fonagy, PWhat do adult attachment scales measure?. Bull Menninger Clin 1998;62: 3382.
[49]Stein, H, Koontz, AD, Fonagy, P, Allen, JG, Fultz, J, Brethour, JRet al.Adult attachment: what are the underlying dimensions?. Psychol Psychother 2002;75: 7791.
[50]Sung, SM, Kim, JH, Yang, E, Abrams, KY, Lyoo, IKReliability and validity of the Korean version of the temperament and character inventory. Compr Psychiatry 2002;43: 235243.
[51]Svrakic, NM, Svrakic, DM, Cloninger, CRA general quantitative theory of personality development: Fundamentals of a self-organizing psychobiological complex. Dev Psychopathol 1996;8: 247272.
[52]Vaughn, BE, Bost, KKAttachment and temperament. Redundant, independent, or interacting influences on interpersonal adaptation and personality development?. Cassidy, J, Shaver, PRHandbook of attachment New York: Guildford Press; 1999. 198225.
[53]Warren, SL, Huston, L, Egeland, B, Sroufe, LAChild and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychitary 1997;36: 637644.

Keywords

Adolescent attachment styles and their relation to the temperament and character traits of personality in a general population

  • Jayanti Chotai (a1), Mattias Jonasson (a1), Bruno Hägglöf (a2) and Rolf Adolfsson (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

Adolescent attachment styles and their relation to the temperament and character traits of personality in a general population

  • Jayanti Chotai (a1), Mattias Jonasson (a1), Bruno Hägglöf (a2) and Rolf Adolfsson (a1)
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *