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El uso de antipsicóticos atípicos en el tratamiento de la catatonía

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 May 2020

Filip Van Den Eede
Affiliation:
Instituto de Investigación Psiquiátrica en Colaboración de Amberes, CAPRI, Universidad de Amberes (UA), Campus Drie Eiken/Building T, Universiteitsplein I, 2610Amberes, Bélgica Hospital Universitario de Amberes, UZA, Edegem, Bélgica
Jan Van Hecke
Affiliation:
Instituto de Investigación Psiquiátrica en Colaboración de Amberes, CAPRI, Universidad de Amberes (UA), Campus Drie Eiken/Building T, Universiteitsplein I, 2610Amberes, Bélgica Campus Stuivenberg, ACZA, Amberes, Bélgica
Arjen Van Dalfsen
Affiliation:
Instituto de Investigación Psiquiátrica en Colaboración de Amberes, CAPRI, Universidad de Amberes (UA), Campus Drie Eiken/Building T, Universiteitsplein I, 2610Amberes, Bélgica Atención de Salud Mental WNB, Bergen op Zoom, Países Bajos
Bart Van den Bossche
Affiliation:
Instituto de Investigación Psiquiátrica en Colaboración de Amberes, CAPRI, Universidad de Amberes (UA), Campus Drie Eiken/Building T, Universiteitsplein I, 2610Amberes, Bélgica Hospital Universitario de Amberes, UZA, Edegem, Bélgica
Paul Cosyns
Affiliation:
Instituto de Investigación Psiquiátrica en Colaboración de Amberes, CAPRI, Universidad de Amberes (UA), Campus Drie Eiken/Building T, Universiteitsplein I, 2610Amberes, Bélgica Hospital Universitario de Amberes, UZA, Edegem, Bélgica
Bemard G. C. Sabbe
Affiliation:
Instituto de Investigación Psiquiátrica en Colaboración de Amberes, CAPRI, Universidad de Amberes (UA), Campus Drie Eiken/Building T, Universiteitsplein I, 2610Amberes, Bélgica Hospital Psiquiátrico St.-Norbertushuis, Duffel, Bélgica
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Resumen

Propósito

Los datos indican que los antipsicóticos clásicos pueden agravar la catatonía no maligna (CNM) y la catatonía maligna (CM). Los antipsicóticos atípicos tienen menos posibilidades de causar trastornos del movimiento que los antipsicóticos clásicos, y se prescriben con frecuencia en los trastornos que se pueden asociar con la catatonía. Por tanto, la pregunta importante que se plantea es si los antipsicóticos atípicos tienen un papel que desempeñar en el tratamiento de la catatonía.

Materiales y métodos

Se realizó una búsqueda en Medline para localizar artículos sobre el uso de antipsicóticos atípicos en la catatonia publicados entre 1970 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004.

Resultados

Las publicaciones sobre el uso de antipsicóticos atipicos en la catatonía consisten en informes clínicos y estudios retrospectivos. En la mayoría de los casos de CNM se informa de una reducción de los síntomas catatónicos con el tratamiento con antipsicóticos atípicos. Los casos de CM se relacionan sobre todo con el síndrome neuroléptico maligno (SNM), que se considera como una variante estuporosa yatrógena de CM causada por los antipsicóticos.

Conclusión

Hay indicaciones de que los antipsicóticos atípicos pueden ser útiles en la CNM. Como consecuencia, deberíamos centramos no sólo en los posibles efectos secundarios extrapiramidales y neurovegetativos de estos farmacos, sino también en los posibles efectos beneficiosos en ciertas funciones cerebrales y en los síntomas catatónicos. Sin embargo, se necesitan ensayos controlados distribuidos al azar para evaluar el efecto de estos medicamentos, y la prudencia es aconsejable, ya que se ha asociado casos de SNM con el tratamiento con antipsicóticos atípicos. No hay datos para prescribir antipsicóticos atípicos en la CM.

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Copyright
Copyright © European Psychiatric Association 2006

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Footnotes

Van Den Eede F, Van Hecke J, Van Dalfsen A, Van den Bossche B, Cosyns P, Sabbe BGC. The use of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of catatonia. Eur Psychiatry 2005;20:422-429.

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