Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-qtfcj Total loading time: 0.661 Render date: 2022-12-08T04:08:30.968Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Communalizing Colonial Policies and Postcolonial Ethnic Warfare: A Multimethod Analysis of the British Empire

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 November 2021

Matthew Lange
Affiliation:
Department of Sociology, McGill University, Montreal [matthew.lange@mcgill.ca].
Emre Amasyali
Affiliation:
Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals, Barcelona, Spain [eamasyali@ibei.org].
Tay Jeong
Affiliation:
Department of Sociology, McGill University, Montreal [tay.jeong@mail.mcgill.ca].
Get access

Abstract

In this article, we reorient the literature on colonialism and ethnic violence by exploring how different types of communalizing colonial policy (CCP) affected postcolonial patterns of ethnic warfare. We hypothesize that CCPs have limited or mixed effects when they simply recognize or empower communities but that they promote ethnic warfare when explicitly favoring some communities over others, especially when this discrimination affects the power of communities. To test these hypotheses, we combine a statistical analysis of the British Empire with a focused case study of Myanmar. We find that two relatively non-discriminatory CCPs—the use of communal census categories and high levels of indirect rule—had limited or mixed effects on postcolonial ethnic warfare. Unequal communal representation in the legislature and security forces and a mixed use of indirect rule, on the other hand, are three highly discriminatory CCPs, and we provide evidence that they increased the odds of postcolonial ethnic warfare.

Résumé

Résumé

Dans cet article, nous réorientons la littérature sur le colonialisme et la violence ethnique en explorant comment différents types de politiques coloniales communalisantes (PCC) ont affecté les types postcoloniaux de guerre ethnique. Nous émettons l’hypothèse que les PCC ont des effets limités ou mitigés lorsqu’elles reconnaissent ou autonomisent les communautés, mais qu’elles encouragent la guerre ethnique lorsqu’elles en favorisent explicitement certaines par rapport à d’autres, en particulier lorsque cette discrimination affecte le pouvoir des communautés. Pour tester ces hypothèses, nous combinons une analyse statistique de l’Empire britannique avec une étude de cas ciblée du Myanmar. Nous constatons que deux PCC relativement non discriminatoires – l’utilisation de catégories de recensement communales et des niveaux élevés de pouvoir indirect – ont eu des effets limités ou mitigés sur la guerre ethnique postcoloniale. Une représentation communautaire inégale au sein de la législature et des forces de sécurité, et un usage mixte de la règle indirecte, d’autre part, sont trois PCC hautement discriminatoires, et nous fournissons la preuve qu’elles ont augmenté les chances de guerre ethnique postcoloniale.

Zusammenfassung

Zusammenfassung

In diesem Beitrag wird die Literatur über Kolonialismus und ethnische Gewalt neu ausgerichtet, um die verschiedenen Formen kolonialer Kommunalisierungspolitik (KKP) und deren Einfluss auf postkoloniale Muster ethnischer Kriege zu analysieren. Wir stellen die Hypothese auf, dass KKPs einerseits begrenzte oder zwiespältige Auswirkungen haben, wenn sie Gemeinschaften anerkennen oder stärken, und andererseits ethnischen Kriegen Vorschub leisten, sobald manchen Gemeinschaften ausdrücklich der Vorzug gegeben wird, insbesondere dann wenn die Ausgrenzung die Macht der Gemeinschaft beeinträchtig. Zwecks ihrer Überprüfung haben wir eine statistische Analyse des britischen Empire mit einer gezielten Fallstudie Myanmars kombiniert. Diese zeigen, dass zwei relativ diskriminierungsfreie KKPs – der Rückgriff auf kommunale Volkszählungskategorien und auf ein hohes Maß an indirekter Macht – begrenzte oder zwiespältige Auswirkungen auf postkoloniale ethnische Kriege gehabt haben. Die ungleiche Vertretung der Volksgruppen in der Legislative und in den Sicherheitskräften einerseits sowie die zwiespältige Anwendung der indirekten Regel andererseits sind dagegen drei äußerst diskriminierende KKPs. Wir weisen darüberhinaus nach, dass beide Strategien die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines postkolonialen ethnischen Krieges erhöht haben.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© European Journal of Sociology 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

This article was originally published with two authors’ names omitted. The error has been rectified and the HTML and PDF versions updated.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abernethy, David, 2000. The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires 1415-1980 (New Haven, CT, Yale University Press).Google Scholar
Alesina, Alberto, Devleeschauwer, Arnaud, Easterly, William, Kurlat, Sergio and Wacziarg, Romain, 2003. “Fractionalization,” Journal of Economic Growth, 8: 155194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Babones, Salvatore, 2014. Methods for Quantitative Macro-Comparative Research (London, Sage).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, Nathaniel, Katz, Jonathan N. and Tucker, Richard, 1998. “Taking Time Seriously: Time-Series–Cross-Section Analysis with a Binary Dependent Variable,” Journal of Political Science, 42: 12601288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanton, Robert, Mason, David and Athow, Brian, 2001. “Colonial Style and Post-Colonial Ethnic Conflict in Africa,” Journal of Peace Research, 38: 473491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borcan, Oana, Olsson, Ola and Putterman, Louis, 2018. “State History and Economic Development: Evidence from Six Millennia,” Journal of Economic Growth, 23 (1): 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, David, 1996. The State and Ethnic Politics in Southeast Asia (New York, Routledge).Google Scholar
Buadaeng, Kwanchewan, 2007. “Ethnic Identities of the Karen Peoples in Burma and Thailand,” in James, Peacock, Thornton, Patricia and Inman, Patrick, eds, Identity Matters: Ethnic and Sectarian Conflict (New York, Berghahn Books: 7397).Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1928. “Proceedings of the Burma Legislative Council, Volumes 12 and 13,” British Library, IOR/V/9/4065.Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1929. “Proceedings of the Burma Legislative Council, vol. 14,” British Library, IOR/V/9/4066.Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1930. “Proceedings of the Burma Legislative Council, Volume 17,” British Library, IOR/V/9/4069.Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1932. “Proceedings of the Burma Legislative Council, vol. 21,” British Library, IOR/V/9/4073.Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1933a. “Proceedings of the Burma Legislative Council, vol. 24,” British Library, IOR/V/9/4076.Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1933b. “Proceedings on Motions Concerning Separation Issue; Conclusions of Government of Burma,” British Library, IOR/M/1/46.Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1935. “Proceedings of the Burma Legislative Council, vol. 30,” British Library, IOR/V/9/4082.Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1936. “Proceedings of the Burma Legislative Council, vol. 32,” British Library, IOR/V/9/4084.Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1938. “Proceedings of the First Senate, Volume IV,” British Library, IOR/V/9/4104.Google Scholar
Burma Legislative Council, 1946. “Proceedings of the Burma Legislative Council, Volume 1, Number 8,” British Library, IOR/V/9/4127.Google Scholar
Burma Reforms Committee, 1921a. “Proceedings of the Burma Reforms Committee. Record of Evidence, Volume I,” British Library, IOR/L/PARL/2/391.Google Scholar
Burma Reforms Committee, 1921b. “Report,” British Library, IOR/L/PARL/2/391.Google Scholar
Cady John, F., 1958. A History of Modern Burma (Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
Callahan, Mary, 2003. Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma (Ithaca, Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
de Silva, K.M, 1986. Managing Ethnic Tensions in Multi-Ethnic Societies: Sri Lanka, 1880-1985 (Lanham, MD, University Press of America).Google Scholar
Fearon, James, 2003. “Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country,” Journal of Economic Growth, 8 (2): 195222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, James and Laitin, David, 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War,” American Political Science Review, 97 (1): 7590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feenstra Robert, C., Inklaar, Robert and Timmer, Marcel P., 2015. “The Next Generation of the Penn World Table,” American Economic Review, 105 (10): 31503182.Google Scholar
Ferguson, Ian, ed., 1999. Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals (New York, Basic Books).Google Scholar
Fildis Ayse, Tekdal. 2011. “The Troubles in Syria: Spawned by French Divide and Rule,” Middle East Policy, 18 (4): 129139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fink, Christina, 2001. “Introduction,” in Po San, C., Burma and the Karens (White Lotus, Bangkok: ixxliii).Google Scholar
Geertz, Clifford, 1963. “The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States,” in Clifford, Geertz, ed., Old Societies and New States (New York, Free Press: 105157).Google Scholar
Goertz, Gary, 2016. “Multimethod Research,” Security Studies, 25 (1): 324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goertz, Gary and Mahoney, James, 2013. “Methodological Rorschach Tests: Contrasting Interpretations in Qualitative and Quantitative Research,” Comparative Political Studies, 46 (2): 236251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gravers, Mikael, 2002. “Conversion and Identity: Religion and the Formation of the Karen Ethnic Identity in Burma,” in Mikael, Gravers, ed., Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma (Copenhagen, NIAS Press: 227258).Google Scholar
Harriden, Jessica, 2002. “‘Making a Name for Themselves’: Karen Identity and the Politicization of Ethnicity in Burma,” Journal of Burma Studies, 7: 84144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ibrahim, Azeem, 2016. The Rohingyas: Inside Myanmar’s Hidden Genocide (London, Hurst & Company).Google Scholar
Idris, Amir, 2005. Conflict and Politics of Identity in Sudan (New York, Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
Indian Statutory Commission, 1929. “Seventh Meeting of the Commission, Deputations from the British Burman Association, the Karen Elders and the Karen National Association, the Burma Muslim Society, the Muslim League, Burma, and the Provincial Tanzim,” Rangoon, 5 February, 1929, British Library, IOR/Q/13/1/33, item 7.Google Scholar
Jørgensen Anders, Baltzer, 1997. “Forward,” in Marshall, H.I., The Karen People of Burma: A Study of Anthropology and Ethnology (Bangkok, White Lotus: vxi).Google Scholar
Keenan, Paul, 2017. “Karen National Identity in the Early 20th Century–the Daw K’lu: The Karen National Association,” Retrieved 16 January 2019 (https://paullkeenan.net/2017/04/18/karen-national-identity-in-the-early-20th-century-the-daw-klu-the-karen-national-association/).Google Scholar
Kymlicka, Will, 1995. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights (New York, Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
Lange, Matthew, 2009. Lineages of Despotism and Development: British Colonialism and State Power (Chicago, University of Chicago Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lange, Matthew, 2017. Killing Others: A Natural History of Ethnic Violence (Ithaca, Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
Lange, Matthew and Balian, Hrag, 2008. “Containing Conflict or Instigating Unrest? A Test of the Effects of State Infrastructural Power on Civil Violence,” Studies in Comparative International Development, 43: 314333.Google Scholar
Lange, Matthew and Dawson, Andrew, 2009. “Dividing and Ruling the World? A Statistical Test of the Effects of Colonialism on Postcolonial Civil Violence,” Social Forces, 88: 785818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levy Jack, S., 2008. “Counterfactuals and Case Studies,” in Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., Brady, Henry E. and Collier, David, eds, The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology (New York, Oxford University Press: 627644).Google Scholar
Lewis James, Lee, 1924. “The Burmanization of the Karen People: A Study in Racial Adaptability,” Master of Arts Thesis, Department of Practical Theology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
Lieberman, Evan, 2005. “Nested Analysis as a Mixed-Method Strategy for Comparative Research,” American Political Science Review, 99 (3): 435452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lieberman, Evan, and Singh, Prerna, 2012. “The Institutional Origins of Ethnic Violence,” Comparative Politics, 45: 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lieberman, Evan, and Singh, Prerna, 2017. “Census Enumeration and Group Conflict: A Global Analysis of the Consequences of Counting,” World Politics, 69 (1): 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lovejoy, Paul, 1992. “Historical Setting,” in Metz, Helen, ed., Nigeria: A Country Study (Washington, D.C., Library of Congress: 184).Google Scholar
Lwanga-Lunyiigo, Samwiri, 1987. “The Colonial Roots of Internal Conflict in Uganda,” International Seminar on Internal Conflict, Retrieved 17 June 2019 [https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/1412/ISIC%2017-The%20colonial%20roots%20of%20internal%20conflict%20in%20Uganda%20-%20331408.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.Google Scholar
Mamdani, Mahmood, 2001. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and Genocide in Rwanda (Princeton, Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Mamdani, Mahmood, 2009. Saviors and Survivors: Darfur, Politics, and the War on Terror (New York, Pantheon Books).Google Scholar
Maung, U Maung 1990. Burmese Nationalist Movements, 1940-1948 (Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press).Google Scholar
McEvoy, Joanne and O’Leary, Brendan, eds, 2013. Power Sharing in Deeply Divided Places (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paine, Jack, 2019. “Ethnic Violence in Africa: Destructive Legacies of Pre-Colonial States,” International Organizations, 73: 645683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollis, Adamantia, 1973. “Intergroup Conflict and British Colonial Policy: The Case of Cyprus,” Comparative Politics, 5 (4): 575599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rajah, Ananda, 2002. “A ‘Nation of Intent’ in Burma: Karen Ethno-Nationalism, Nationalism and Narrations of Nation,” Pacific Review, 15: 517537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ray, Subhasish, 2012. “The Nonmartial Origins of the “Martial Races”: Ethnicity and Military Service in Ex-British Colonies,” Armed Forces & Society, 39 (3): 560575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ray, Subhasish, 2016. “Sooner or Later: The Timing of Ethnic Conflict Onsets After Independence,” Journal of Peace Research, 53 (6): 800814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ray, Subhasish, 2018. “Beyond Divide and Rule: Explaining the Link Between British Colonialism and Ethnic Violence,” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 24 (4): 367388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schrank, Andrew, 2013. “Quantitative Cross-National Sociology and the Methodological Abyss: Comment on Alcacer and Ingram,” American Journal of Sociology, 118 (4): 10991111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seawright, Jason, 2016. “Better Multimethod Design: The Promise of Integrative Multimethod Research,” Security Studies, 25 (1): 4249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Selth, Andrew, 1986. “Race and Resistance in Burma, 1942-1945,” Modern Asian Studies, 20 (3): 483500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silverstein, Josef, 1980. Burmese Politics: The Dilemma of National Unity (New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press).Google Scholar
Smeaton Donald, MacKenzie, 1920. The Loyal Karens of Burma (London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd).Google Scholar
Smith Martin, J., 1991. Burma: Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity (London, Zed Books).Google Scholar
Stepan, Alfred, Linz, Juan and Yadav, Yogendra, 2011. Crafting State-Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies (Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press).Google Scholar
Stern, Theodore, 1968. “Ariya and the Golden Book: A Millenarian Buddhist Sect Among the Karen,” Journal of Asian Studies, 27: 297328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tajfel, Henri, 1974. “Social Identity and Intergroup Behavior,” Social Science Information, 13: 6593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tudor, Maya, 2013. The Promise of Power: The Origins of Democracy in India and Autocracy in Pakistan (New York, Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Upper Burma, Muslims, 1929. “Memorandum from the Upper Burma Muslims,” British Library, IOR/Q/13/2/28, E-Bur-993.Google Scholar
Verghese, Ajay, 2016. The Colonial Origins of Ethnic Violence in India (Palo Alto, CA, Stanford University Press).Google Scholar
White Benjamin, 2011. The Emergence of Minorities in the Middle East: The Politics of Community in French Mandate Syria (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press).Google Scholar
Wig, Tore and Kromrey, Daniela, 2018. “Which Groups Fight? Customary Institutions and Communal Conflicts in Africa,” Journal of Peace Research, 55 (4): 415429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wimmer, Andreas, 2013. Waves of War: Nationalism, State Formation, and Ethnic Exclusion in the Modern World (New York, Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
Wimmer, Andreas, 2018. Nation Building: Why Some Countries Come Together While Others Fall Apart (Princeton, Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
Wimmer, Andreas, Cederman, Lars-Erik and Min, Brian, 2009. “Ethnic Politics and Armed Conflict: A Configurational Analysis,” American Sociological Review, 74: 316337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wucherpfennig, Julian, Hunziker, Philipp and Cederman, Lars-Erik, 2016. “Who Inherits the State? Colonial Rule and Postcolonial Conflict,” American Journal of Political Science, 60 (4): 882898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
1
Cited by

Linked content

Please note a has been issued for this article.

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Communalizing Colonial Policies and Postcolonial Ethnic Warfare: A Multimethod Analysis of the British Empire
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Communalizing Colonial Policies and Postcolonial Ethnic Warfare: A Multimethod Analysis of the British Empire
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Communalizing Colonial Policies and Postcolonial Ethnic Warfare: A Multimethod Analysis of the British Empire
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *