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Gordon Childe and Scottish Archaeology: The Edinburgh Years 1927–1946

  • Ian Ralston (a1)

Abstract

This article considers Childe's career in Scotland, where he was Abercromby Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at Edinburgh University 1927–1946, and assesses his impact on Scottish archaeology and the Scottish archaeological community. Matters discussed include his development of teaching programmes and resources within the university, and his association with the Edinburgh League of Prehistorians. His excavation and fieldwork at Skara Brae and elsewhere, and his publications during this span, are considered. Childe's collaborations with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland and the National Museum, especially during the Second World War, are reviewed. The archaeological achievements of some of his Edinburgh students are briefly summarized.

Cet article évoque la carrière de Childe en Écosse, où il était titulaire de la chaire » Abercromby « en archéologie préhistorique à l'Université d'Édimbourg de 1927 à 1946, et évalue en même temps son impacte sur l'archéologie écossaise et la communauté archéologique écossaise. On y discute entre autres les programmes d'enseignement et les ressources qu'il avait développés au sein de l'université, et son association avec la Ligue des Préhistoriens d'Édimbourg. Ses fouilles et son travail sur le terrain, entre autres à Skara Brae, et ses publications durant cette période sont également examinés. De plus on passe en revue sa collaboration avec la ‘Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland’ et avec le Musée National, plus particulièrement pendant la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale, et on résume brièvement les exploits archéologiques de quelques-uns de ses étudiants édimbourgeois.

Zusammenfassung

Dieser Aufsatz beschäftigt sich mit Childes Karriere in Schottland, wo er zwischen 1927 und 1946 Abercromby-Professor für Prähistorische Archäologie an der Universität Edinburgh war, und bewertet seinen Einfluss auf die Archäologie Schottlands und die schottische archäologische Gemeinschaft. Dies schließt seine Entwicklung von Lehrprogrammen und -ressourcen innerhalb der Universität und seine Anbindung an die Edinburgh League of Prehistorians ein. Seine Ausgrabungen und Feldforschungen in Skara Brae und anderen Plätzen sowie seine Publikationen in diesem Zeitraum werden behandelt. Zudem werden Childes Zusammenarbeit mit der Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland und dem Nationalmuseum eingeschätzt sowie die archäologischen Leistungen einiger seiner Edinburgher Studenten kurz zusammengefasst.

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Note: This list includes all the published sources used in this piece. It also comprises the complete listing of Childe’s writings on Scottish archaeology, as presently known to the author. For Childe’s contributions, the convention adopted here is that only those distinguished by ‘a, b, etc.’ are directly cited in text above, and these precede others of the same date in the list sequence. Childe’s co-authored works appear in the list according to their date.

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Childe, V.G., 1929. The decorative art of the prehistoric village of Skara Brae, Orkney. IPEK (Jahrbuch für prähistorische und ethnographische Kunst): 5355.
Childe, V.G. and Paterson, J.W., 1929. Provisional report on the excavations at Skara Brae, and on the finds from the 1927 and 1928 campaigns. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 63(1928–29):225280.
Childe, V.G., 1930a. The Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Childe, V.G., 1930b. Excavations in a chambered cairn at Kindrochat, near Comrie, Perthshire. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 64(1929–30):264272.
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Childe, V.G., 1930. Operations at Skara Brae during 1929. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 64(1929–30):158190.
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Childe, V.G., 1931b. Skara Brae; a ‘Stone Age’ village in Orkney. Antiquity 5(17):4759.
Childe, V.G., 1931c. Final report on the operations at Skara Brae. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 65(1930–31):2777.
Childe, V.G. (with Bryce, T.H. and Watson, D.M.S.), 1931a. Skara Brae: A Pictish Village in Orkney. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co.
Childe, V.G., 1932a. Chambered cairns near Kilfinan, Argyll. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 66(1931–32):415425.
Childe, V.G., 1932. Age of Skara Brae. Man 32(August):191.
Childe, V.G., 1932. Scottish notes. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia 7(1):129130.
Childe, V.G. and Forde, C.D., 1932a. Excavations in two Iron Age forts at Earn's Heugh, near Coldingharn. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 66(1931–32):152183.
Childe, V.G., 1933a. Excavations at Castlelaw Fort, Midlothian. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 67(1932–33):362388.
Childe, V.G., 1933b. Excavations at Castlelaw, Midlothian and the small forts of north Britain. Antiquaries Journal 13:112.
Childe, V.G., 1933c. Trial excavations at the Old Keig stone circle, Aberdeenshire. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 67(1932–33):3753.
Childe, V.G., 1933. Ancient Dwellings at Skara Brae. Edinburgh: HMSO (HM Office of Works, official guide).
Childe, V.G., 1933. Scottish megalithic tombs and their affinities. Transactions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society new series 8(3):120137.
Childe, V.G., 1933. Notes on excavations in Scotland in 1933. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia 7(2):269.
Childe, V.G., 1934a. Final report on the excavation of the stone circle at Old Keig, Aberdeenshire. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 68(1933–34):372393.
Childe, V.G., 1934. The chambered tombs of Scotland in relation to those of Spain and Portugal. Annuario del Cuerpo Facultativo de Archiveros, Bibliotecarios Y Archeólogos 1:113.
Childe, VG., 1934. Neolithic settlement in the west of Scotland. Scottish Geographical Magazine 50(1):1825.
Childe, V.G., 1934. Notes on excavations in Scotland during 1934. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia 7(3):413414.
Childe, V.G., 1935a. The Prehistory of Scotland. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co.
Childe, V.G., 1935b. Excavation of the vitrified fort of Finavon, Angus. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 69(1934–35):4980.
Childe, V.G., 1935c. Notes of some duns in Islay. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 69(1934–35):8184.
Childe, V.G., 1935. Le rôle de l'Ecosse dans la civilisation préhistorique de l'Atlantique. Préhistoire 4:721.
Childe, V.G., 1935. Notes on excavations in Scotland during 1935. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 1:142144.
Childe, V.G., 1936a. (1) Carminnow fort; (2) supplementary excavations at the vitrified fort of Finavon, Angus; and (3) some Bronze Age vessels from Angus. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 70(1935–1936):341356.
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Childe, V.G., 1936. Notes on excavations in Scotland during 1936. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 2(2):224226.
Childe, V.G., 1936. Scottish tracked stones and their significance. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society (N.S.) 2(2):233236.
Childe, V.G., 1937a. A round cairn near Achnamara, Loch Sween, Argyll. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 71(1936–37):8489.
Childe, V.G., 1937. Notes on excavations in Scotland during 1937. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 3:454455.
Childe, V.G., 1938a. Excavations carried out by H.M. Office of Works in the Bronze-Age levels at Jarlshof in 1937. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 72(1937–1938):348363.
Childe, V.G., 1938. Notes on excavations in Scotland during 1938. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 4:323324.
Childe, V.G. and Thorneycroft, W., 1938a. The vitrified fort at Rahoy, Morvern, Argyll. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 72(1937–1938):2343.
Childe, V.G. and Thorneycroft, W., 1938b. The experimental production of the phenomena distinctive of vitrified forts. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 72(1937–1938):4455.
Childe, V.G., 1939a. Notes on excavations in Scotland during 1939. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 5:256257.
Childe, V.G., 1939. Some results of archaeological research in Scotland 1932–1937. University of London Institute of Archaeology Second Annual Report: 2945.
Childe, V.G. and Grant, W.G., 1939a. A Stone-Age settlement at the Braes of Rinyo, Rousay, Orkney (first report). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 73(1938–1939):631.
Childe, V.G. and Low, A., 1939a. A Beaker burial from Innerwick, East Lothian. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 73(1938–39):318319.
Childe, V.G. and Taylor, J., 1939a. Rock scribings at Hawthornden, Midlothian. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 73(1938–1939):316318.
Childe, V.G., 1940a. Prehistoric Communities of the British Isles. London and Edinburgh: Chambers.
Childe, V.G., 1940. Prehistoric Scotland. London: Bell and Sons (Historical Association Pamphlet 115).
Childe, V.G., 1941a. The defences of Kaimes hill-fort, Midlothian. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 75(1940–1941):4354.
Childe, V.G., 1941b. Excavation of the prehistoric fort on Cairngryfe Hill, near Lanark. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 75(1940–1941):213218.
Childe, V.G., 1941. Rock engravings in Scotland. Antiquity 15(59):290291.
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Childe, V.G., 1942b. The chambered cairns of Rousay. Antiquaries Journal 22:139142.
Childe, V.G., 1942. Rare flint in Hawick Museum. Transactions of the Hawick Archaeological Society [for 1942]:31
Childe, V.G. and Waterston, D., 1942a. Further urns and cremation burials from Brackmont Mill, near Leuchars, Fife. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 76(1941–1942):8493.
Childe, V.G., 1943a. Another late Viking house at Freswick, Caithness. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 77(1942–1943):517.
Childe, V.G., 1943b. An encrusted urn from Aberlemno, Angus. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 77(1942–1943):189191.
Childe, V.G., 1943c. A hoard of bronzes from Ballymore, Cowall, Argyll. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 77(1942–43):184187.
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Childe, V.G., 1944b. Memoir: Arthur J. H. Edwards; Director of the Museum. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 78(1943–1944):150151.
Childe, V.G., 1944c. An unrecognized group of chambered cairns. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 78(1943–1944):2639.
Childe, V.G., 1944. The bronze blade from Craigscorry, near Beauly. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 78(1943–1944):138.
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Childe, V.G., 1945a. An unusual cinerary urn from Droughdool, near Dunragit, Wigtownshire. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 79(1944–1945):168170.
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