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We compared the efficacy of intravenous lornoxicam vs. dipyrone in
patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative analgesia.
The study included 105 patients who had undergone elective septorhinoplasty
after receiving general anaesthesia. Patients were divided into three groups
to receive lornoxicam (24 mg day−1), dipyrone (5 g
day−1) or placebo. Pain was evaluated using a
0–100 mm visual analogue scale at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h
postoperatively. Pethidine (1 mg kg−1) was
administered intramuscularly to patients requiring rescue analgesia.
Pethidine requirements were recorded during the first 24 h postoperatively,
and treatment-related adverse effects were noted.
Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower with lornoxicam compared
with dipyrone at 8 h (P = 0.016). No
significant differences regarding pain scores at 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 20 and 24
h were found. Significantly fewer patients in the lornoxicam group required
rescue analgesics (vs. dipyrone, P =
0.046; vs. placebo, P = 0.001); fewer
patients in the dipyrone group required rescue analgesics compared with
placebo (P = 0.008). Significantly fewer
patients in the lornoxicam group had nausea (vs. dipyrone, P = 0.022; vs. placebo, P = 0.006); no significant differences were found between
the other two groups. Antiemetic use was significantly lower in the
lornoxicam group (vs. dipyrone, P =
0.002; vs. placebo, P = 0.001).
Lornoxicam has better tolerability and is a more effective analgesic than
dipyrone when administered by patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative
analgesia after septorhinoplasty.
The induction of general anaesthesia is associated with the greatest cardiovascular changes in elderly patients. Induction can be performed either intravenously or with gaseous induction. Sevoflurane has advantages over propofol for induction of anaesthesia in the elderly, since the lower reduction in mean arterial pressure with sevoflurane is both statistically and clinically significant. This prospective randomized controlled trial investigated the cardiovascular benefits of co-induction of anaesthesia with 0.75 mg kg−1 propofol and 8% sevoflurane, when compared with 8% sevoflurane alone in patients requiring surgery for fractured neck of femur.
In total, 38 patients aged 75 or over were allocated into the two groups, receiving either 0.75 mg kg−1 of propofol followed by 8% sevoflurane or 8% sevoflurane alone. Vital signs were recorded until successful insertion of a laryngeal mask. Induction times, induction events and patient satisfaction scores were also recorded.
Results showed that there were no differences in the cardiovascular parameters between the two groups. Induction times were faster in the propofol and sevoflurane group (62 vs. 81 s; P = 0.028). The postoperative questionnaire showed that the majority of patients in both groups were satisfied with the induction process.
We concluded that 0.75 mg kg−1 of propofol followed by sevoflurane induction is an acceptable alternative to sevoflurane induction. It is associated with similar haemodynamic variables, faster induction times and is very well tolerated.
Previous studies have demonstrated an increased perioperative opioid requirement during inflammatory disease. To evaluate the influence of the inflammatory process, we studied in the same patient the sufentanil requirement during procedures that occur during two distinct phases of ulcerative colitis with different inflammatory profiles: (1) left colectomy for major colitis unresponsive to medical treatment during acute inflammation and (2) coloprotectomy with ileoanal anastomosis, three months after recovery of the acute inflammatory episode.
Sixteen patients with clinical and histological evidence of ulcerative colitis scheduled for colectomy with ileoanal anastomosis were included. For each surgical procedure, anaesthesia was induced with sufentanil 0.5 μg kg−1 and propofol 2 mg kg−1. Patients were ventilated with 50% nitrous oxide and oxygen, and tidal volume was adjusted to keep end-tidal CO2 at 30 mmHg. Anaesthesia was maintained with end-tidal isoflurane at 0.5%. Analgesia was achieved with continuous infusion of sufentanil at 0.3 μg kg−1 h−1. Additional boluses of sufentanil and increases in infusion rates were used when haemodynamic variables increased to more than 20% of preoperative values. Sufentanil consumption during surgery was analysed by Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Total intra-operative sufentanil requirement was significantly larger during colectomy performed for acute inflammatory colitis than during ileoanal anastomosis performed after the inflammatory process (1.24 ± 0.48 μg kg−1 h−1 vs. 0.62 ± 0.3 μg kg−1 h−1; P < 0.05).
For the same patient, inflammatory status influences opioid requirements during surgery for ulcerative colitis.
The measurement of α-glutathione-S-transferase enzyme is one of the most sensitive indicators of hepatocellular function. Variation in the glutathione-S-transferase P1 gene clusters has been intensively investigated and polymorphism has been described. The aim of the study was to assess whether an association exists between glutathione-S-transferase P1 gene polymorphism and serum α-glutathione-S-transferase concentrations for the first postoperative day in patients who underwent anaesthesia with sevoflurane.
In all, 54 unrelated patients were enrolled in this study. Anaesthesia was induced with thiopental and fentanyl. Vecuronium was used for neuromuscular relaxation before endotracheal intubation. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in a gas mixture containing 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Peripheral venous blood samples to determine serum α-glutathione-S-transferase concentrations were collected before induction (T1), at the end of anaesthesia (T2) and at 24-h postoperatively (T3). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunoassay was used to measure α-glutathione-S-transferase levels. Genomic DNA was isolated from serum samples using a genomic DNA purification kit. In order to detect the variants of glutathione-S-transferase P1, polymerase chain reaction – restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was employed.
Early postoperative serum α-glutathione-S-transferase levels for all patients were significantly increased when compared with preanaesthetic and 24-h postoperatively (P < 0.05). Serum α-glutathione-S-transferase concentrations, in individuals with glutathione-S-transferase P1 Ile105Val genotypes (heterozygote gene), remained elevated at 24 h (P < 0.05), whereas levels in individuals with glutathione-S-transferase P1 Ile105Ile (wild gene) decreased (P > 0.05).
Although α-glutathione-S-transferase levels were elevated in all patients after sevoflurane anaesthesia, levels remained high at 24 h in patients with glutathione-S-transferase P1 Ile105Val genotypes compared to controls.
The line joining the two iliac crests is classically regarded as the anatomical landmark determining the inter-vertebral space L4–L5 for the spinal punctures. Its variability has been reported but never related to predictive clinical anatomic factors identifying patients groups in which there is increased risk of miscalculation of the spinal level.
Two sagittal pelvic anatomical angles, called ‘pelvic incidence’ and ‘pelvic lordosis’ were measured on lateral X-rays of the pelvis of 132 normal individuals and 49 spondylolysis patients. The values were compared with the sagittal projection of the intercrestal line on the disco-vertebral lumbar structures.
A strict relation was observed between this projection of the intercrestal line and the sagittal pelvic anatomical angles. The greater the pelvic incidence, the higher the intercrestal line was projected, all the more in patients with spondylolysis with a listhesis or a disc narrowing.
The relation between the pelvic sagittal angles and the intercrestal line projection explains the variability described for this anatomical landmark. It implies precautions minimizing neurological risk in the case of a puncture carried out more cranially than expected, particularly for high values of pelvic incidence occurring in spinal pathologies such as spondylolysis, in the elderly or in the obese patients. In these cases, we recommend the use of spinal imaging during the procedure to assist selection of the desired insertion level.
Hypoxia-reperfusion injury is an important determinant of secondary brain injury. In the acute phase of cerebral reperfusion, pro-inflammatory events enhance expression of cerebral endothelial (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin) adhesion molecules, which play an important role in brain hypoxia-reperfusion injury. Midazolam is the most commonly used sedative in patients with brain injury. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of midazolam on the expression of cerebral endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin during hypoxia-reperfusion injury invitro.
The up-regulation of mouse cerebral endothelial cells intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin was assessed following hypoxia-reoxygenation (hypoxia-reperfusion). Cells were pre-treated with three different concentrations of midazolam (0, 5 and 50 μg mL−1) prior to hypoxia. Flow cytometry was used to estimate adhesion molecule expression mean channel fluorescence. Data are presented as mean ± SD.
Mouse cerebral endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin expression was greater after exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation compared to normoxia (mean channel fluorescence) 241 ± 12 vs. 140 ± 7 and 120 ± 14 vs. 46 ± 7, respectively, P < 0.05. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin expression was decreased by midazolam (5 μg mL−1) pre-incubation compared to control, mean channel fluorescence 184 ± 10 vs. 241 ± 12 and 51 ± 7 vs. 120 ± 14, respectively, P < 0.05. Midazolam at 50 μg mL−1 had the same effect as 5 μg mL−1.
Pre-treatment with midazolam diminishes increased expression of cerebral endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin expression following hypoxia-reoxygenation.
Although the PROWESS trial demonstrated a mortality benefit, subsequent studies in different patient populations have not reproduced the effect. As a result, concerns have been expressed about the clinical effectiveness of drotrecogin alfa (activated). Therefore the aim of this audit was to review the clinical impact of drotrecogin alfa (activated) when used outside clinical trials.
A retrospective review of ICU charts and medical records of patients who had received drotrecogin alfa (activated) in the five largest users of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in England. Patients characteristics details at ICU admission and vital status at hospital discharge were recorded. The severity of illness was assessed by the APACHE II score (using first 24 h admission data) and the number of organ dysfunctions. Adverse incidents were recorded and any sequence effect explored.
In all, 351 patients received drotrecogin alfa (activated) between December 2002 and November 2005. Of those, 201 (57.2%) were male, and 177 (50.4%) were admitted after recent surgery. The patients’ average age was 61.8 yr. The mean admission APACHE II score was 23.3 and the average number of dysfunctional organs on admission was 3.3. The hospital mortality was 46.7% (164 deaths). The expected number of deaths calculated by using the APACHE II risk of death was 173 (49.3%) and by number of sepsis induced organ failures 210 (59.7%). Overall, there were 33 (9.4%) adverse incidents.
Expected mortality derived from both the APACHE II score and organ dysfunctions suggests that drotrecogin alfa (activated) does reduce mortality. Serious adverse incidents occurred in 5.1% patients; however, the direct contributing effect of drotrecogin alfa (activated) cannot be established from this type of audit.
The myocardial performance index is a non-geometric, heart rate-independent echocardiography-derived index of left ventricular performance combining systolic and diastolic function. There is an ongoing debate whether the myocardial performance index is affected by preload or not. Moreover, a systematic evaluation of the effect of changing tidal volume ventilation on the myocardial performance index is still lacking. The aim of our study was to assess whether acute changes in preload and/or different depth of tidal volume ventilation affect the myocardial performance index.
In all, 14 anesthetized pigs (35 ± 2 kg) were studied during changing tidal volumes (VT 5, 10 and 15 mL kg−1) at baseline, after removal of 500 cm3 of blood (haemorrhage) and after retransfusion of shed blood plus additional 500 cm3 6% hydroxyethyl starch (fluid loading). Echocardiographic measurements at each experimental stage included myocardial performance index, left ventricular end-diastolic area and fractional area change. Central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac output and stroke volume index were obtained by a pulmonary artery catheter. Global end-diastolic volume was obtained by transpulmonary thermodilution.
Comparing different loading conditions, we found significant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume index, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, global end diastolic volume and left ventricular end-diastolic area, indicating clinically relevant changes in preload. In the haemorrhage group, there was a significant reduction in the myocardial performance index (P < 0.05) independent of tidal volume applied and this was reversed after fluid loading. However, myocardial performance index was significantly impaired (P < 0.05) by high tidal volume ventilation (15 mL kg−1), while tidal volumes of 5 and 10 mL kg−1 had no effect.
The myocardial performance index is largely dependent on changes in preload. Moreover, high tidal volume ventilation significantly impaired the myocardial performance index.
Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing drug that enhances myocardial contractility without increasing intracellular calcium. By activating adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels it exerts cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects.
A retrospective matched pair analysis was performed in 52 patients undergoing emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for acute myocardial ischaemia with or without cardiogenic shock. A total of 27 patients received levosimendan (bolus 6 μg kg−1; continuous infusion 0.2 μg kg−1 min−1) in addition to catecholamines, while 25 patients were treated with catecholamines only.
Predicted mortality by logistic EuroSCORE was 42% (14–90%) in the levosimendan group and 38% (9–90%) in the control group (median, range). Cardiogenic shock was diagnosed in 52% of the patients in both groups. Compared to the control group, levosimendan-treated patients had fewer intra-aortic balloon pumps inserted (33% vs. 76%, P < 0.05) and were ventilated for a shorter period (39 ± 39 h vs. 106 ± 109 h, P < 0.05). In this limited number of patients, the reduction in mortality at day 30 (26% levosimendan; 44% control, P > 0.05) and need for dialysis (11% levosimendan; 32% control, P > 0.05) did not reach statistical significance. Length of hospital stay did not differ (14 ± 18 days, levosimendan; 13 ± 19 days, control; P > 0.05) between the two groups.
In this retrospective matched pair analysis of 52 patients undergoing emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for acute ischaemia, levosimendan reduced morbidity. The reduced morbidity did not translate into reductions in mortality or length of stay. A larger, prospective randomized trial is warranted to confirm the potentially beneficial effects of levosimendan in patients with acute ischaemia.
Volatile anaesthetics have gained more popularity recently due to the potential for cardiac protection. Ultra-fast-track anaesthesia implies the immediate extubation after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this prospective randomized double-blind controlled study is to compare the cardioprotective effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane in off-pump cardiac bypass surgery.
Forty patients undergoing elective off-pump cardiac bypass surgery with high thoracic epidural analgesia and immediate extubation at the end of surgery were randomized into two groups. During surgery, anaesthesia was provided with either 1 minimum alvelolar anaesthetic concentration of sevoflurane or 1 minimum alvelolar anaesthetic concentration of isoflurane. Troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, left ventricular wall motion anomalies, time to extubation, respiratory functions and haemodynamic parameters were compared between the two groups by analysis of variance.
All patients were successfully extubated in the operating theatre with minimal postoperative pain. Serial creatine kinase-MB and troponin-T concentrations were not significantly different between the two volatile agents. Haemodynamic stability throughout surgery and contractility was not different between groups. However, extubation time was significantly shorter with sevoflurane (10 ± 5 min) compared to isoflurane (18 ± 4 min).
This study indicates that during off-pump cardiac bypass surgery, sevoflurane and isoflurane provide the same ischaemic cardioprotective effects. There is no difference for heart contractility and haemodynamic values during and after off-pump cardiac bypass surgery between the two agents. Sevoflurane allows a more rapid recovery from anaesthesia, but this does not translate into better pulmonary function or haemodynamics. Both agents are similar in ultra–fast-track off-pump cardiac bypass surgery.
The purpose was to study the agreement between cardiac output measurements with electrical velocimetry vs. intermittent thermodilution before and after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Cardiac output was measured simultaneously with electrical velocimetry and intermittent thermodilution before and immediately after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and in the intensive care unit. Measurements were performed in three different body positions. The results were analysed according to Bland and Altman.
The mean bias of all 150 paired measurements in 16 patients was 0.21 ± 0.78 L min−1, and the mean error was 40%. Before skin incision the mean bias was 0.04 ± 0.41 L min−1, and the mean error was 25%. After skin closure the mean bias was 0.57 ± 0.92 L min−1, and the mean error was 42%. In the intensive care unit the mean bias was 0.26 ± 0.68 L min−1, and the mean error was 32%.
The agreement between cardiac output measurements with electrical velocimetry and intermittent thermodilution was clinically acceptable only before skin incision in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The mean error was unacceptably high immediately after skin closure and was at a borderline level in the intensive care unit. Thus, the overall accuracy of cardiac output measurements with the electrical velocimetry technique during coronary artery bypass graft surgery is not clinically unacceptable.
During off-pump coronary bypass grafting, surgical manipulation and dislocation of the heart may cause cardiovascular instability. Monitoring of cardiac output facilitates intraoperative haemodynamic management but pulmonary artery catheters are often considered too invasive. Pulse contour analysis and transoesophageal echocardiography could serve as alternatives, but there is controversy about their accuracies. We validated pulse contour analysis using a standard radial arterial catheter (PulseCO™) and aortic Doppler flowmetry with transoesophageal echocardiography in patients undergoing off-pump coronary bypass surgery. Pulmonary arterial thermodilution served as the reference technique.
In 20 patients undergoing off-pump coronary bypass, cardiac output was measured with bolus thermodilution (COTD), pulse contour analysis (COPC), and transoesophageal echocardiography (COecho) at fixed time intervals during the procedure. Data were compared using linear regression and Bland–Altman analysis. At the end of the procedure, dobutamine was infused at a rate of 2.5 μg kg−1 min−1 in six patients to study the agreement between methods in quantifying changes in cardiac output.
Comparison between COPC and COTD showed a bias ± limits of agreement of −0.03 ± 1.30 L min−1 (mean error 29%). Doppler echocardiography was not always feasible when the heart was displaced from the oesophagus and had lower accuracy: bias ± limits of agreement vs. COTD was 0.45 ± 1.93 (mean error 43%). Increases in cardiac output induced by dobutamine were well quantified both by pulse contour analysis (COPC = 0.76 × COTD + 0.58; r2 = 0.65) and Doppler, although the latter tended to overestimate these changes (COecho = 1.58 × COTD − 0.13; r2 = 0.53).
Calibrated pulse contour analysis using the PulseCO system is an acceptable technique to measure cardiac output non-invasively in off-pump coronary bypass patients. Doppler echocardiography performs less well and is not always feasible with transoesophageal echocardiography when the heart is displaced.