Johnson BW, Parris WCV. Mechanisms of neuropathic pain. In: Raj PP, ed. Current Review of Pain.Philadelphia, USA: Current Medicine, 1994: 179–194.
Gershon S, Newton R. Lack of anticholinergic side effects with a new antidepressant – trazodone. J Clin Psychiat 1980; 41: 100–104.
Baldessarini RJ. Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In: Goodman Gilman A, Goodman L, Rall TW, Murad F, eds. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics.New York, USA: Macmillan, 1985: 387–445.
Feighner JP. Trazodone, a triazolopyridine derivative, in primary depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiat 1980; 41: 250–255.
Feighner JP, Boyer WF. Overview of USA controlled trials of trazodone in clinical depression. Psychopharmacology 1988; 95: S50–S53.
Valeri P, Pimpinella G, Morrone LA, Romanelli L. Antinociceptive effects of trazodone and m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) in mice: interaction with morphine. Gen Pharmacol 1991; 22: 127–131.
Wilson RC. The use of low-dose trazodone in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. J Am Podiat Med Assn 1999, 89: 468–471.
Ventafridda V, Caraceni A, Saita L, et al. Trazodone for deafferentation pain. Comparison with amitriptyline. Psychopharmacology 1988; 95: S44–S49.
Bennett GJ. An animal model of neuropathic pain: a review. Muscle Nerve 1993; 16: 1040–1048.
Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. Pain 1983; 16: 109–110.
Bennett GJ, Xie YK. A peripheral mononeuropathy in rat that produces disorders of pain sensation like those seen in man. Pain 1988; 33: 87–107.
Paxinos G, Watson C. The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates.New York, USA: Academic Press, 1996.
Hargreaves K, Dubner R, Brown F, Flores C, Joris J. A new and sensitive method for measuring thermal nociception in cutaneous hyperalgesia. Pain 1988; 32: 77–88.
Attal N, Jazat F, Kayser V, Guilbaud G. Further evidence for ‘pain-related’ behaviours in a model of unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy. Pain 1990; 41: 235–251.
Yamamoto T, Shimoyama N. Role of nitric oxide in the development of thermal hyperesthesia induced by sciatic nerve constriction injury in the rat. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 1267–1273.
Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Endogenous pain control mechanisms: review and hypothesis. Ann Neurol 1978; 4: 451–462.
Tal M, Eliav E. Abnormal discharge originates at the site of nerve injury in experimental constriction neuropathy (CCI) in the rat. Pain 1996; 64: 511–518.
Carlton SM, Dougherty PM, Pover CM, Coggeshall RE. Neuroma formation and numbers of axons in a rat model of experimental peripheral neuropathy. Neurosci Lett 1991; 131: 88–92.
Munger BL, Bennett GJ, Kajander KC. An experimental painful peripheral neuropathy due to nerve constriction. I. Axonal pathology in the sciatic nerve. Exp Neurol 1992; 118: 204–214.
Nuytten D, Kupers R, Lammens M, Dom R, Van Hees J, Gybels J. Further evidence for myelinated as well as unmyelinated fibre damage in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Exp Brain Res 1992: 91: 73–78.
Basbaum AI, Gautron M, Jazat F, Mayes M, Guilbaud G. The spectrum of fiber loss in a model of neuropathic pain in the rat: an electron microscopic study. Pain 1991; 47: 359–367.
Ardid D, Guilbaud G. Antinociceptive effects of acute and ‘chronic’ injections of tricyclic antidepressant drugs in a new model of mononeuropathy in rats. Pain 1992; 49: 279–287.
Eschalier A. Antidepressants and pain management. In: Besson JM, ed. Serotonin and Pain.New York, USA: Elsevier, 1990: 305–326.
Haskins JT, Moyer JA, Muth EA, Sigg EB. DMI, Wy-45,030, Wy-45,881 and ciramadol inhibit locus coeruleus neuronal activity. Eur J Pharmacol 1985; 115: 139–146.
Muth EA, Haskins JT, Moyer JA, Husbands GE, Nielsen ST, Sigg EB. Antidepressant biochemical profile of the novel bicyclic compound Wy-45,030, an ethyl cyclohexanol derivative. Biochem Pharmacol 1986; 35: 4493–4497.
Lang E, Hord AH, Denson D. Venlafaxine hydrochloride (Effexor™) relieves thermal hyperalgesia in rats with an experimental mononeuropathy. Pain 1996; 68: 151–155.
Willis WD, Westlund KN. Neuroanatomy of the pain system and of the pathways that modulate pain. J Clin Neurophysiol 1997; 14: 2–31.
Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Endogenous pain control systems: brainstem spinal pathways and endorphin circuitry. Ann Rev Neurosci 1984; 7: 309–338.
Besson JM, Chaouch A. Peripheral and spinal mechanisms of nociception. Physiol Rev 1987; 67: 67–186.
Fields HL, Basbaum AI, Clanton CH, Anderson SD. Nucleus raphe magnus inhibition of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons. Brain Res 1977; 126: 411–453.
Andersen E, Dafny N. Microiontophoretically applied 5-HT reduces responses to noxious stimuli in the thalamus. Brain Res 1982; 241: 176–178.
Beitz AJ. The anatomy of ascending serotonergic pathways possibly involved in pain modulation. In: Besson JM, ed. Serotonin and Pain.New York, USA: Elsevier, 1990: 31–51.
Azmitia EC, Segal M. An autoradiographic analysis of the differential ascending projections of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the rat. J Comp Neurol 1978; 179: 641–659.
Andersen E, Dafny N. An ascending serotonergic pain modulation pathway from the dorsal raphe nucleus to the parafascicularis nucleus of the thalamus. Brain Res 1983; 269: 57–67.
Bowker RM, Westlund KN, Coulter JD. Origins of serotonergic projections to the spinal cord in rat: an immunocytochemical-retrograde transport study. Brain Res 1981; 226: 187–199.
Gebhart GF, Jones SL. Effects of morphine given in the brain stem on the activity of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons. Prog Brain Res 1988; 77: 229–243.
Jacobs BL, Azmitia EC. Structure and function of the brain serotonin system. Physiol Rev 1992; 72: 165–229.
Fuller RW, Snoddy HD, Cohen ML. Interactions of trazodone with serotonin neurons and receptors. Neuropharmacology 1984; 23: 539–544.
Pazzagli M, Giovannini MG, Pepeu G. Trazodone increases extracellular serotonin levels in the frontal cortex of rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1999; 383: 249–257.
Eaton MJ, Santiago DI, Dancausse HA, Whittemore SR. Lumbar transplants of immortalized serotonergic neurons alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. Pain 1997; 72: 59–69.
Wang YX, Bowersox SS, Pettus M, Gao D. Antinociceptive properties of fenfluramine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in a rat model of neuropathy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 291: 1008–1016.
Barber A, Harting J, Wolf HP. Antinociceptive effects of the 5-HT2 antagonist ritanserin in rats: evidence for an activation of descending monoaminergic pathway in the spinal cord. Neurosci Lett 1989; 99: 234–238.
Bardin L, Lavarenne J, Eschalier A. Serotonin receptor subtypes involved in the spinal antinociceptive effect of 5-HT in rats. Pain 2000; 86: 11–18.
Jackson WK, Roose SP, Glassman AH. Cardiovascular toxicity of antidepressant medications. Psychopathology 1987; 20 (Suppl 1): 64–74.