Brun-Buisson C, Doyon F, Carlet J, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults. A multicenter prospective study in intensive care units. French ICU Group for Severe Sepsis. JAMA 1995; 274: 968–974.
Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, Clermont G, Carcillo J, Pinsky MR. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med 2001; 29: 1303–1310.
Sands KE, Bates DW, Lanken PN, et al. Epidemiology of sepsis syndrome in 8 academic medical centers. Academic Medical Center Consortium Sepsis Project Working Group. JAMA 1997; 278: 234–240.
Quartin AA, Schein RM, Kett DH, Peduzzi PN. Magnitude and duration of the effect of sepsis on survival. Department of Veterans Affairs Systemic Sepsis Cooperative Studies Group. JAMA 1997; 277: 1058–1063.
Heyland DK, Hopman W, Coo H, Tranmer J, McColl MA. Long-term health-related quality of life in survivors of sepsis. Short Form 36: a valid and reliable measure of health-related quality of life. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 3599–3605.
Imm A, Carlson RW. Fluid resuscitation in circulatory shock. Crit Care Clin 1993; 9: 313–333.
Groeneveld AB, Bronsveld W, Thijs LG. Hemodynamic determinants of mortality in human septic shock. Surgery 1986; 99: 140–153.
Thijs L. In: Sibbald W, Vincent J, eds. Clinical Trial for the Treatment of Sepsis. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1995: 167–190.
Boldt J. Volume therapy in the intensive care patient – we are still confused, but. Intensive Care Med 2000; 26: 1181–1192.
Haljamae H. Volume substitution in shock. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl 1993; 98: 25–28.
Carlson RW, Rattan S, Haupt M. Fluid resuscitation in conditions of increased permeability. Anesth Rev 1990; 17 (Suppl 3): 14.
Lush CW, Kvietys PR. Microvascular dysfunction in sepsis. Microcirculation 2000; 7: 83–101.
Laszlo F, Whittle BJ. Colonic microvascular integrity in acute endotoxaemia: interactions between constitutive nitric oxide and 5-lipoxygenase products. Eur J Pharmacol 1995; 277: R1–3.
Fujii E, Irie K, Uchida Y, et al. Tolerance to lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in vascular permeability in mouse skin. Eur J Pharmacol 1996; 313: 129–134.
Starling E. On the absorption of fluids from the connective tissue spaces. J Physiol London 1896; 19: 312–326.
Singh S, Winlove CP, Evans TW. In: Vincent JL, ed. Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2000: 80–92.
Michel CC, Curry FE. Microvascular permeability. Physiol Rev 1999; 79: 703–761.
Winlove C, Parker K. Vascular biophysics: mechanics and permeability. Eur Respir Rev 1993; 3: 535–542.
Baldwin GS, Kelly SM, Price NC, et al. Ligand-induced conformational states of the cytosine-specific DNA methyltransferase M.HgaI-2. J Mol Biol 1994; 235: 545–553.
Haljamae H. Rationale for the use of colloids in the treatment of shock and hypovolemia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl 1985; 82: 48–54.
Vaupshas HJ, Levy M. Distribution of saline following acute volume loading: postural effects. Clin Invest Med 1990; 13: 165–177.
Scheingraber S, Rehm M, Sehmisch C, Finsterer U. Rapid saline infusion produces hyperchloremic acidosis in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 1265–1270.
Velasco IT, Pontieri V, Rocha e Silva M Jr, Lopes OU. Hyperosmotic NaCl and severe hemorrhagic shock. Am J Physiol 1980; 239: H664–673.
Wade CE, Grady JJ, Kramer GC, Younes RN, Gehlsen K, Holcroft JW. Individual patient cohort analysis of the efficacy of hypertonic saline/dextran in patients with traumatic brain injury and hypotension. J Trauma 1997; 42: S61–65.
Margarson M, Soni N. In: Vincent JL, ed. Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1997: 411–423.
Margarson MP, Soni N. Serum albumin: touchstone or totem? Anaesthesia 1998; 53: 789–803.
Parving HH, Gyntelberg F. Albumin transcapillary escape rate and plasma volume during long-term beta-adrenergic blockade in essential hypertension. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1973; 32: 105–110.
Foley EF, Borlase BC, Dzik WH, Bistrian BR, Benotti PN. Albumin supplementation in the critically ill. A prospective, randomized trial. Arch Surg 1990; 125: 739–742.
Golub R, Sorrento JJ Jr, Cantu R Jr, Nierman DM, Moideen A, Stein HD. Efficacy of albumin supplementation in the surgical intensive care unit: a prospective, randomized study. Crit Care Med 1994; 22: 613–619.
Rubin H, Carlson S, DeMeo M, Ganger D, Craig RM. Randomized, double-blind study of intravenous human albumin in hypoalbuminemic patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. Crit Care Med 1997; 25: 249–252.
Human albumin administration in critically ill patients: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Injuries Group Albumin Reviewers. BMJ 1998; 317: 235–240.
Wilkes MM, Navickis RJ. Patient survival after human albumin administration. A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135: 149–164.
Cook DJ, Guyatt GH. Review: albumin administration is not associated with excess mortality in acutely ill patients. ACP J Club 2002; 136: 2.
Webb AR. The appropriate role of colloids in managing fluid imbalance: a critical review of recent meta-analytic findings. Crit Care 2000; 4: S26–32.
Sibbald WJ. An alternative pathway for preclinical research in fluid management. Crit Care 2000; 4: S8–S15.
Human albumin solutions: consensus statements for use in selected clinical situations. Subcommittee of the Victorian Drug Usage Advisory Committee. Med J Aust 1992; 157: 340–343.
Nicholls MD, Whyte G. Red cell, plasma and albumin transfusion decision triggers. Anaesth Intensive Care 1993; 21: 156–162.
Vermeulen LC Jr, Ratko TA, Erstad BL, Brecher ME, Matuszewski KA. A paradigm for consensus. The University Hospital Consortium guidelines for the use of albumin, nonprotein colloid, and crystalloid solutions. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 373–379.
Durand-Zaleski I, Bonnet F, Rochant H, Bierling P, Lemaire F. Usefulness of consensus conferences: the case of albumin. Lancet 1992; 340: 1388–1390.
Schildt B, Bouveng R, Sollenberg M. Plasma substitute induced impairment of the reticuloendothelial system function. Acta Chir Scand 1975; 141: 7–13.
Muchmore E, Bonhard K, Kothe N. Distribution and clearance from the body of an oxypolygelatin plasma substitute determined by radioactive tracer study in chimpanzees. Arzneimittelforschung 1983; 33: 1552–1554.
Klotz U, Kroemer H. Clinical pharmacokinetic considerations in the use of plasma expanders. Clin Pharmacokinet 1987; 12: 123–135.
Mortelmans YJ, Vermaut G, Verbruggen AM, et al. Effects of 6% hydroxyethyl starch and 3% modified fluid gelatin on intravascular volume and coagulation during intraoperative hemodilution. Anesth Analg 1995; 81: 1235–1242.
Lundsgaard-Hansen P, Tschirren B. Clinical experience with 120,000 units of modified fluid gelatin. Dev Biol Stand 1980; 48: 251–256.
Laxenaire MC, Charpentier C, Feldman L. Anaphylactoid reactions to colloid plasma substitutes: incidence, risk factors, mechanisms. A French multicenter prospective study. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1994; 13: 301–310.
Lutz H, Georgieff M. Effects and side effects of colloid plasma substitutes as compared to albumin. Curr Stud Hematol Blood Transfus 1986; 53: 145–154.
Thoren L. The dextrans. Clinical data. In: Hennessen W, ed. Developments in Biological Standardization: Standardization of Albumin, Plasma Substitutes and Plasmapheresis. Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 1981: 157–167.
Baron JF. In: Vincent JL, ed. Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2000: 443–466.
Audibert G, Donner M, Lefevre JC, Stoltz JF, Laxenaire MC. Rheologic effects of plasma substitutes used for preoperative hemodilution. Anesth Analg 1994; 78: 740–745.
Steinbauer M, Harris AG, Leiderer R, Abels C, Messmer K. Impact of dextran on microvascular disturbances and tissue injury following ischemia/reperfusion in striated muscle. Shock 1998; 9: 345–351.
Baldwin AL, Wu NZ, Stein DL. Endothelial surface charge of intestinal mucosal capillaries and its modulation by dextran. Microvasc Res 1991; 42: 160–178.
Abramson N. Plasma expanders and bleeding. Ann Intern Med 1988; 108: 307.
Ljungstrom KG, Renck H, Strandberg K, Hedin H, Richter W, Widerlov E. Adverse reactions to dextran in Sweden 1970–1979. Acta Chir Scand 1983; 149: 253–262.
Allhoff T, Lenhart FP. Severe dextran-induced anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction despite preventive hapten administration. Infusionsther Transfusionsmed 1993; 20: 301–306.
Hedin H, Ljungstrom KG. Prevention of dextran anaphylaxis. Ten years experience with hapten dextran. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997; 113: 358–359.
Baron JF. Pharmacology of low molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1992; 11: 509–515.
Treib J, Haass A, Pindur G, et al. HES 200/0.5 is not HES 200/0.5. Influence of the C2/C6 hydroxyethylation ratio of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on hemorheology, coagulation and elimination kinetics. Thromb Haemost 1995; 74: 1452–1456.
London MJ, Ho JS, Triedman JK, et al. A randomized clinical trial of 10% pentastarch (low molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch) versus 5% albumin for plasma volume expansion after cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1989; 97: 785–797.
Webb AR, Barclay SA, Bennett ED. In vitro colloid osmotic pressure of commonly used plasma expanders and substitutes: a study of the diffusibility of colloid molecules. Intensive Care Med 1989; 15: 116–120.
Boldt J. Crystalloids or colloids for volume replacement in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. In: Treib E, ed. Volume Therapy. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1999: 69–77.
Treib J, Baron JF, Grauer MT, Strauss RG. An international view of hydroxyethyl starches. Intensive Care Med 1999; 25: 258–268.
Ring J, Seifert J, Struif E, Messmer K, Brendel W. Incidence of anaphylactoid reactions following infusion with colloid volume substitutes. Chir Forum Exp Klin Forsch 1977: 31–35.
Bothner U, Georgieff M, Vogt NH. Assessment of the safety and tolerance of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (200/0.5) solution: a randomized, controlled epidemiology study. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 850–855.
Treib J, Haass A, Pindur G, et al. Increased haemorrhagic risk after repeated infusion of highly substituted medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch. Arzneimittelforschung 1997; 47: 18–22.
Treib J, Haass A. Hydroxyethyl starch. J Neurosurg 1997; 86: 574–575.
Treib J, Haass A, Pindur G. Coagulation disorders caused by hydroxyethyl starch. Thromb Haemost 1997; 78: 974–983.
Beyer R, Harmening U, Rittmeyer O, et al. Use of modified fluid gelatin and hydroxyethyl starch for colloidal volume replacement in major orthopaedic surgery. Br J Anaesth 1997; 78: 44–50.
Boldt J, Heesen M, Muller M, Pabsdorf M, Hempelmann G. The effects of albumin versus hydroxyethyl starch solution on cardiorespiratory and circulatory variables in critically ill patients. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 254–261.
Stander S, Szepfalusi Z, Bohle B, et al. Differential storage of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in the skin: an immunoelectron-microscopical long-term study. Cell Tissue Res 2001; 304: 261–269.
Gall H, Schultz KD, Boehncke WH, Kaufmann R. Clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hydroxyethyl starch-induced pruritus: evaluation of 96 cases. Dermatology 1996; 192: 222–226.
Sirtl C, Laubenthal H, Zumtobel V, Kraft D, Jurecka W. Tissue deposits of hydroxyethyl starch (HES): dose-dependent and time-related. Br J Anaesth 1999; 82: 510–515.
Dehne MG, Muhling J, Sablotzki A, Dehne K, Sucke N, Hempelmann G. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) does not directly affect renal function in patients with no prior renal impairment. J Clin Anesth 2001; 13: 103–111.
Schortgen F, Lacherade JC, Bruneel F, et al. Effects of hydroxyethylstarch and gelatin on renal function in severe sepsis: a multicentre randomised study. Lancet 2001; 357: 911–916.
Boldt J. Hydroxyethylstarch as a risk factor for acute renal failure in severe sepsis. Lancet 2001; 358: 581–583.
Godet G. Hydroxyethylstarch as a risk factor for acute renal failure in severe sepsis. Lancet 2001; 358: 582–583.
Gosling P, Rittoo D, Manji M, Mahmood A, Vohra R. Hydroxyethylstarch as a risk factor for acute renal failure in severe sepsis. Lancet 2001; 358: 582.
Legendre C, Thervet E, Page B, Percheron A, Noel LH, Kreis H. Hydroxyethylstarch and osmotic-nephrosislike lesions in kidney transplantation. Lancet 1993; 342: 248–249.
Cittanova ML, Leblanc I, Legendre C, Mouquet C, Riou B, Coriat P. Effect of hydroxyethylstarch in brain-dead kidney donors on renal function in kidney-transplant recipients. Lancet 1996; 348: 1620–1622.
Coronel B, Mercatello A, Colon S, Martin X, Moskovtschenko J. Hydroxyethylstarch and osmotic nephrosis-like lesions in kidney transplants. Lancet 1996; 348: 1595.
Deman A, Peeters P, Sennesael J. Hydroxyethyl starch does not impair immediate renal function in kidney transplant recipients: a retrospective, multicentre analysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 1517–1520.
Weil MH. The assault on the Swan–Ganz catheter: a case history of constrained technology, constrained bedside clinicians, and constrained monetary expenditures. Chest 1998; 113: 1379–1386.
McLean AS. Echocardiography assessment of left ventricular function in the critically ill. Anaesth Int Care 1996; 24: 60–65.
Lichtwarck-Aschoff M, Zeravik J, Pfeiffer UJ. Intrathoracic blood volume accurately reflects circulatory volume status in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med 1992; 18: 142–147.
Kisch H, Leucht S, Lichtwarck-Aschoff M, Pfeiffer UJ. Accuracy and reproducibility of the measurement of actively circulating blood volume with an integrated fiberoptic monitoring system. Crit Care Med 1995; 23: 885–893.
Sakka SG, Bredle DL, Reinhart K, Meier-Hellmann A. Comparison between intrathoracic blood volume and cardiac filling pressures in the early phase of hemodynamic instability of patients with sepsis or septic shock. J Crit Care 1999; 14: 78–83.
Reuter DA, Felbinger TW, Schmidt C, et al. Stroke volume variations for assessment of cardiac responsiveness to volume loading in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28: 392–398.
McCrossan L, Marx G, Cope T, et al. Stroke volume variation: a cardiac preload parameter in mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis. Br J Anaesth 2002; 89: 194P.
Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1368–1377.
Ackland G, Grocott MP, Mythen MG. Understanding gastrointestinal perfusion in critical care: so near, and yet so far. Crit Care 2000; 4: 269–281.
Creteur J, De Backer D, Vincent JL. Does gastric tonometry monitor splanchnic perfusion? Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 2480–2484.
Gutierrez G, Palizas F, Doglio G, et al. Gastric intramucosal pH as a therapeutic index of tissue oxygenation in critically ill patients. Lancet 1992; 339: 195–199.
Staub NC, Bland RD, Brigham KL, et al. Preparation of chronic lung lymph fistulas in sheep. J Surg Res 1975; 19: 315–320.
Brigham KL, Woolverton WC, Blake LH, Staub NC. Increased sheep lung vascular permeability caused by Pseudomonas bacteremia. J Clin Invest 1974; 54: 792–804.
Haupt MT, Teerapong P, Green D, Schaeffer RC Jr, Carlson RW. Increased pulmonary edema with crystalloid compared to colloid resuscitation of shock associated with increased vascular permeability. Circ Shock 1984; 12: 213–224.
Gorin AB, Weidner WJ, Demling RH, Staub NC. Noninvasive measurement of pulmonary transvascular protein flux in sheep. J Appl Physiol 1978; 45: 225–233.
Hersch M, Gnidec AA, Bersten AD, Troster M, Rutledge FS, Sibbald WJ. Histologic and ultrastructural changes in nonpulmonary organs during early hyperdynamic sepsis. Surgery 1990; 107: 397–410.
Groeneveld AB, den Hollander W, Straub J, Nauta JJ, Thijs LG. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and terbutaline treatment on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock. Circ Shock 1990; 30: 185–205.
Deng X, Wang X, Andersson R. Endothelial barrier resistance in multiple organs after septic and nonseptic challenges in the rat. J Appl Physiol 1995; 78: 2052–2061.
Filep JG. Endogenous endothelin modulates blood pressure, plasma volume, and albumin escape after systemic nitric oxide blockade. Hypertension 1997; 30: 22–28.
Marx G, Cobas Meyer M, Schuerholz, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch and modified fluid gelatin maintain plasma volume in a porcine model of septic shock with capillary leakage. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28: 629–635.
Fingar VH, Taber SW, Wieman TJ. A new model for the study of pulmonary microcirculation: determination of pulmonary edema in rats. J Surg Res 1994; 57: 385–393.
McCormack DG, Mehta S, Tyml K, Scott JA, Potter R, Rohan M. Pulmonary microvascular changes during sepsis: evaluation using intravital videomicroscopy. Microvasc Res 2000; 60: 131–140.
Yuan Y, Granger HJ, Zawieja DC, Chilian WM. Flow modulates coronary venular permeability by a nitric oxide-related mechanism. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: H641–646.
Sakai I, Ishihara H, Iwakawa T, Suzuki A, Matsuki A. Ratio of indocyanine green and glucose dilutions detects capillary protein leakage following endotoxin injection in dogs. Br J Anaesth 1998; 81: 193–197.
Papadopoulos MC, Lamb FJ, Moss RF, Davies DC, Tighe D, Bennett ED. Faecal peritonitis causes oedema and neuronal injury in pig cerebral cortex. Clin Sci 1999; 96: 461–466.
Roos AN, Westendorp RG, Brand R, Souverijn JH, Frolich M, Meinders AE. Predictive value of tetrapolar body impedance measurements for hydration status in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 1995; 21: 125–131.
Seghaye MC, Grabitz RG, Duchateau J, et al. Inflammatory reaction and capillary leak syndrome related to cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates undergoing cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 112: 687–697.
Nurnberger W, Michelmann I, Petrik K, et al. Activity of C1 esterase inhibitor in patients with vascular leak syndrome after bone marrow transplantation. Ann Hematol 1993; 67: 17–21.
Roos AN, Westendorp RG, Frolich M, Meinders AE. Weight changes in critically ill patients evaluated by fluid balances and impedance measurements. Crit Care Med 1993; 21: 871–877.
Raijmakers PG, Groeneveld AB, Teule GJ, Thijs LG. Diagnostic value of the gallium-67 pulmonary leak index in pulmonary edema. J Nucl Med 1996; 37: 1316–1322.
Margarson MP, Soni NC. Effects of albumin supplementation on microvascular permeability in septic patients. J Appl Physiol 2002; 92: 2139–2145.
Groves M, Puri VK, Raheja R. Extravascular lung water measurement by double indicator dilution in shock and respiratory failure. Int J Clin Monit Comput 1987; 4: 223–229.
Hill SL, Elings VB, Lewis FR. Changes in lung water and capillary permeability following sepsis and fluid overload. J Surg Res 1980; 28: 140–150.
Holcroft JW, Trunkey DD, Carpenter MA. Excessive fluid administration in resuscitating baboons from hemorrhagic shock, and an assessment of the thermodye technic for measuring extravascular lung water. Am J Surg 1978; 135: 412–416.
Gray BA, Beckett RC, Allison RC, et al. Effect of edema and hemodynamic changes on extravascular thermal volume of the lung. J Appl Physiol 1984; 56: 878–890.
Lewis FR, Elings VB, Hill SL, Christensen JM. The measurement of extravascular lung water by thermal-green dye indicator dilution. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1982; 384: 394–410.
Katzenelson R, Preisman S, Berkenstadt H, Kogan S, Perel A. Extra-vascular lung water measured by a single indicator dilution technique in dogs – correlation with gravimetric measurements. Crit Care Med 2002; 29 (Suppl): A155.
Böck J, Lewis FR. Clinical relevance of lung water measurement with thermal–dye dilution technique. In: Lewis FR, Pfeiffer UJ, eds. Practical Applications of Fiberoptics in Critical Care Monitoring. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1990: 164–180.
Bongard FS, Matthay M, Mackersie RC, Lewis FR. Morphologic and physiologic correlates of increased extravascular lung water. Surgery 1984; 96: 395–403.
Allison RC, Carlile PV Jr, Gray BA. Thermodilution measurement of lung water. Clin Chest Med 1985; 6: 439–457.
Whitney RJ. The measurement of volume changes in human limbs. J Physiol 1953; 121: 1–27.
Christ F, Gartside IB, Kox WJ, Gamble J. Microvascular monitoring using mercury in silastic strain gauge plethysmography (MSG). Infusionsther Transfusionsmed 1993; 20: 253–259.
Gamble J, Gartside IB, Christ F. A reassessment of mercury in silastic strain gauge plethysmography for microvascular permeability assessment in man. J Physiol 1993; 464: 407–422.
Christ F, Gamble J, Gartside IB, Kox WJ. Increased microvascular water permeability in patients with septic shock, assessed with venous congestion plethysmography (VCP). Intensive Care Med 1998; 24: 18–27.
Ishihara H, Matsui A, Muraoka M, Tanabe T, Tsubo T, Matsuki A. Detection of capillary protein leakage by indocyanine green and glucose dilutions in septic patients. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 620–626.
Allison KP, Gosling P, Jones S, Pallister I, Porter KM. Randomized trial of hydroxyethyl starch versus gelatine for trauma resuscitation. J Trauma 1999; 47: 1114–1121.
Marx G, Vangerow B, Burczyk C, et al. Evaluation of noninvasive determinants for capillary leakage syndrome in septic shock patients. Intensive Care Med 2000; 26: 1252–1258.
Hasibeder WR. Fluid resuscitation during capillary leakage: does the type of fluid make a difference. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28: 532–534.
Bisonni RS, Holtgrave DR, Lawler F, Marley DS. Colloids versus crystalloids in fluid resuscitation: an analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Fam Pract 1991; 32: 387–390.
Schierhout G, Roberts I. Fluid resuscitation with colloid or crystalloid solutions in critically ill patients: a systematic review of randomised trials [see comments]. BMJ 1998; 316: 961–964.
Choi PT, Yip G, Quinonez LG, Cook DJ. Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review [see comments]. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 200–210.
Velanovich V. Crystalloid versus colloid fluid resuscitation: a meta-analysis of mortality. Surgery 1989; 105: 65–71.
Vincent JL. Issues in contemporary fluid management. Crit Care 2000; 4: S1–2.
Kreimeier U, Frey L, Dentz J, Herbel T, Messmer K. Hypertonic saline dextran resuscitation during the initial phase of acute endotoxemia: effect on regional blood flow. Crit Care Med 1991; 19: 801–809.
Kreimeier U, Ruiz-Morales M, Messmer K. Comparison of the effects of volume resuscitation with Dextran 60 vs. Ringer's lactate on central hemodynamics, regional blood flow, pulmonary function, and blood composition during hyperdynamic endotoxemia. Circ Shock 1993; 39: 89–99.
De Carvalho H, Matos JA, Bouskela E, Svensjo E. Vascular permeability increase and plasma volume loss induced by endotoxin was attenuated by hypertonic saline with or without dextran. Shock 1999; 12: 75–80.
Lundsgaard-Hansen P, Blauhut B. Relation of hypoxia and edema of the intestinal wall and skin to colloid osmotic pressure. Anaesthesist 1988; 37: 112–119.
Holbeck S, Bentzer P, Wikstrand C, Grande PO. Dextran, gelatin, and hydroxyethyl starch do not affect permeability for albumin in cat skeletal muscle. Crit Care Med 2001; 29: 123–128.
Vincent JL. Plugging the leaks? New insights into synthetic colloids. Crit Care Med 1991; 19: 316–318.
Oz MC, Zikria BA, McLeod PF, Popilkis SJ. Hydroxyethyl starch macromolecule and superoxide dismutase effects on myocardial reperfusion injury. Am J Surg 1991; 162: 59–62.
Zikria BA, Subbarao C, Oz MC, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch macromolecules reduce myocardial reperfusion injury. Arch Surg 1990; 125: 930–934.
Oz MC, FitzPatrick MF, Zikria BA, Pinsky DJ, Duran WN. Attenuation of microvascular permeability dysfunction in postischemic striated muscle by hydroxyethyl starch. Microvasc Res 1995; 50: 71–79.
Zikria BA, Subbarao C, Oz MC, et al. Macromolecules reduce abnormal microvascular permeability in rat limb ischemia-reperfusion injury. Crit Care Med 1989; 17: 1306–1309.
Hakaim AG, Corsetti R, Cho SI. The pentafraction of hydroxyethyl starch inhibits ischemia-induced compartment syndrome. J Trauma 1994; 37: 18–21.
Webb AR, Tighe D, Moss RF, al-Saady N, Hynd JW, Bennett ED. Advantages of a narrow-range, medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch for volume maintenance in a porcine model of fecal peritonitis. Crit Care Med 1991; 19: 409–416.
Webb AR, Moss RF, Tighe D, et al. A narrow range, medium molecular weight pentastarch reduces structural organ damage in a hyperdynamic porcine model of sepsis. Intensive Care Med 1992; 18: 348–355.
Morisaki H, Bloos F, Keys J, Martin C, Neal A, Sibbald WJ. Compared with crystalloid, colloid therapy slows progression of extrapulmonary tissue injury in septic sheep. J Appl Physiol 1994; 77: 1507–1518.
Van Lambalgen AA, van den Bos GC, Thijs LG. Changes in regional plasma extravasation in rats following endotoxin infusion. Microvasc Res 1987; 34: 116–132.
Van Lambalgen AA, van den Bos GC, Thijs LG. Whole body plasma extravasation in saline and Haemaccel loaded rats: effects of endotoxemia. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp 1990; 9: 303–318.
Sumpelmann R, Schurholz T, Marx G, Thorns E, Hausdorfer J. Haemodynamic, acid-base and electrolyte changes during plasma replacement with hydroxyethyl starch or crystalloid solution in young pigs. Paediatr Anaesth 2000; 10: 173–179.
Merkle CJ, Wilson LM, Baldwin AL. Acute blood stasis reduces interstitial uptake of albumin from intestinal microcirculatory networks. Am J Physiol 1998; 274: H600–608.
Koshy V, Avasthi PS. The anionic sites at luminal surface of peritubular capillaries in rats. Kidney Int 1987; 31: 52–58.
Gotloib L, Shustak A, Jaichenko J, Galdi P. Decreased density distribution of mesenteric and diaphragmatic microvascular anionic charges during murine abdominal sepsis. Resuscitation 1988; 16: 179–192.
Shostak A, Gotloib L. Increased mesenteric, diaphragmatic, and pancreatic interstitial albumin content in rats with acute abdominal sepsis. Shock 1998; 9: 135–137.
Rackow EC, Falk JL, Fein IA, et al. Fluid resuscitation in circulatory shock: a comparison of the cardiorespiratory effects of albumin, hetastarch, and saline solutions in patients with hypovolemic and septic shock. Crit Care Med 1983; 11: 839–850.
Ernest D, Belzberg AS, Dodek PM. Distribution of normal saline and 5% albumin infusions in septic patients. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 46–50.
Renkin EM, Tucker V, Rew K, O'Loughlin D, Wong M, Sibley L. Plasma volume expansion with colloids increases blood-tissue albumin transport. Am J Physiol 1992; 262: H1054–1067.
Sibbald WJ, Driedger AA, Wells GA, Myers ML, Lefcoe M. The short-term effects of increasing plasma colloid osmotic pressure in patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema. Surgery 1983; 93: 620–633.
Sort P, Navasa M, Arroyo V, et al. Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 403–409.
Patch D, Burroughs A. Intravenous albumin in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1773–1774.
Groeneveld AB. Albumin and artificial colloids in fluid management: where does the clinical evidence of their utility stand? Crit Care 2000; 4: S16–20.
Harrison MJ. Influence of haematocrit in the cerebral circulation. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 1989; 1: 55–67.
Pries AR, Secomb TW, Sperandio M, Gaehtgens P. Blood flow resistance during hemodilution: effect of plasma composition. Cardiovasc Res 1998; 37: 225–235.
Rackow EC, Mecher C, Astiz ME, Griffel M, Falk JL, Weil MH. Effects of pentastarch and albumin infusion on cardiorespiratory function and coagulation in patients with severe sepsis and systemic hypoperfusion. Crit Care Med 1989; 17: 394–398.
Hankeln K, Radel C, Beez M, Laniewski P, Bohmert F. Comparison of hydroxyethyl starch and lactated Ringer's solution on hemodynamics and oxygen transport of critically ill patients in prospective crossover studies. Crit Care Med 1989; 17: 133–135.
Boldt J, Muller M, Heesen M, Neumann K, Hempelmann GG. Influence of different volume therapies and pentoxifylline infusion on circulating soluble adhesion molecules in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1996; 24: 385–391.
Collis RE, Collins PW, Gutteridge CN, et al. The effect of hydroxyethyl starch and other plasma volume substitutes on endothelial cell activation; an in vitro study. Intensive Care Med 1994; 20: 37–41.
Third European Consensus Conference in Intensive Care Medicine. Tissue hypoxia: How to detect, how to correct, how to prevent. Societe de Reanimation de Langue Française. The American Thoracic Society. European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154: 1573–1578.
Traylor RJ, Pearl RG. Crystalloid versus colloid versus colloid: all colloids are not created equal. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 209–212.