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The effect of coinduction with midazolam on propofol injection pain

  • I. Galvez-Escalera (a1) and C. M. Thorpe (a1)

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to: Christopher Thorpe, Department of Anaesthetics, Ysbyty Gwynedd, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2PW, Wales, UK. E-mail: christhorpe@tinyworld.co.uk

References

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References

Mackenzie JW. Attenuation of pain on injection of propofol – an unexpected benefit of co-induction with midazolam. Anaesthesia 1998; 53: 100.
Unruh AM. Gender variations in clinical pain experience. Pain 1996; 65: 123167.
Cogan R, Spinnato JA. Pain and discomfort thresholds in late pregnancy. Pain 1986; 27: 6368.
Lyons B, Lohan D, Flynn C, McCarroll M. Modification of pain on injection of propofol. A comparison of pethidine and lignocaine. Anaesthesia 1996; 51: 394395.
Fletcher JE, Seavell CR, Bowen DJ. Pretreatment with alfentanil reduces pain caused by propofol. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72: 342344.
Kain ZN, Sevarino F, Pincus MA, et al. Attenuation of the preoperative stress response with midazolam: effects on postoperative outcomes. Anesthesiology 2000; 93: 141147.
Ong LB, Plummer JC, Waldow WC, Owen H. Timing of midazolam and propofol administration for co-induction of anaesthesia. Anaesth Intens Care 2000; 28: 527531.

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