Stevens RD, Burri H, Tramer MR. Pharmacologic myocardial protection in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg 2003; 97: 623–633.
Eagle KA, Berger PB, Calkins H, et al. ACC/AHA Guideline Update for Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery – Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1996 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery). Anesth Analg 2002; 94: 1052–1064.
Urban MK, Markowitz SM, Gordon MA, Urquhart BL, Kligfield P. Postoperative prophylactic administration of beta-adrenergic blockers in patients at risk for myocardial ischemia. Anesth Analg 2000; 90: 1257–1261.
Raby KE, Brull SJ, Timimi F, et al. The effect of heart rate control on myocardial ischemia among high-risk patients after vascular surgery. Anesth Analg 1999; 88: 477–482.
Talke P, Li J, Jain U, et al. Effects of perioperative dexmedetomidine infusion in patients undergoing vascular surgery. The study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 620–633.
Talke P, Chen R, Thomas B, et al. The hemodynamic and adrenergic effects of perioperative dexmedetomidine infusion after vascular surgery. Anesth Analg 2000; 90: 834–839.
Lang RM, Marcus RH, Neumann A, et al. A time-course study of the effects of pentobarbital, fentanyl, and morphine chloralose on myocardial mechanics. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 143–150.
Flacke WE, Flacke JW, Bloor BC, McIntee DF, Sagan M. Effects of dexmedetomidine on systemic and coronary hemodynamics in the anesthetized dog. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1993; 7: 41–49.
Dyck JB, Maze M, Haack C, Azarnoff DL, Vuorilehto DL, Shafer SL. Computer-controlled infusion of intravenous dexmedetomidine hydrochloride in adult human volunteers. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 821–828.
Rooke GA, Feigl EO. Work as a correlate of canine left ventricular oxygen consumption, and the problem of catecholamine oxygen wasting. Circ Res 1982; 50: 273–286.
Arts T, Veenstra PC, Reneman RS. Epicardial deformation and left ventricular wall mechanics during ejection in the dog. Am J Physiol 1982; 12: 379–390.
Arts T, Reneman RS. Measurement of deformation of canine epicardium in vivo during cardiac cycle. Am J Physiol 1980; 239: H432–H437.
Scheinin M, Karhuvaara S, Ojala-Karlsson P, Kallio A, Koulu M. Plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are insensitive indicators of alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated regulation of norepinephrine release in healthy human volunteers. Life Sci 1991; 49: 75–84.
Koulu M, Scheinin M, Kaarttinen A, et al. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by moclobemide: effects on monoamine metabolism and secretion of anterior pituitary hormones and cortisol in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 27: 243–255.
Kal JE, Van Wezel HB, Vergroesen I. A critical appraisal of the rate pressure product as index of myocardial oxygen consumption for the study of metabolic coronary flow regulation. Int J Cardiol 1999; 71: 141–148.
Hoeft A, Sonntag H, Stephan H, Kettler D. Validation of myocardial oxygen demand indices in patients awake and during anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 48–56.
Schipke JD, Burkhoff D, Kass DA, Alexander Jr J, Schaefer J, Sagawa K. Hemodynamic dependence of myocardial oxygen consumption indexes. Am J Physiol 1990; 258: H1281–H1291.
Roekaerts PM, Prinzen FW, de Lange S. Beneficial effects of dexmedetomidine on ischaemic myocardium of anaesthetized dogs. Br J Anaesth 1996; 77: 427–429.
Lawrence CJ, Prinzen FW, de Lange S. The effect of dexmedetomidine on the balance of myocardial energy requirement and oxygen supply and demand. Anesth Analg 1996; 82: 544–550.
Lawrence CJ, Prinzen FW, de Lange S. Hemodynamic and coronary vascular effects of dexmedetomidine in the anesthetized goat. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41: 830–836.
Sidi A, Rush W. Decreased regional lactate production and output due to intracoronary continuous infusion of esmolol during acute coronary occlusion in dogs. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1991; 5: 237–242.
Sidi A, Davis RF. Esmolol decreases the adverse effects of acute coronary artery occlusion on myocardial metabolism and regional myocardial blood flow in dogs. Anesth Analg 1988; 67: 124–130.
Kirshenbaum JM, Kloner RA, Antman EM, Braunwald E. Use of an ultra short-acting beta-blocker in patients with acute myocardial ischemia. Circulation 1985; 72: 873–880.
Menkhaus PG, Reves JG, Kissin I, et al. Cardiovascular effects of esmolol in anesthetized humans. Anesth Analg 1985; 64: 327–334.
Reilly CS, Wood M, Koshakji RP, Wood AJ. Ultra-short-acting beta-blockade: a comparison with conventional beta-blockade. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1985; 38: 579–585.
Deegan R, Wood AJ. Beta-receptor antagonism does not fully explain esmolol-induced hypotension. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994; 56: 223–228.
Jacobs JR, Maier GW, Rankin JS, Reves JG. Esmolol and left ventricular function in the awake dog. Anesthesiology 1988; 68: 373–378.
Gorczynski RJ, Murthy VS, Hwang TF. Beta-blocking and hemodynamic effects of ASL-8052. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1984; 6: 1548–1559.
Shah N, Del Valle O, Edmondson R, et al. Esmolol infusion during nitroprusside-induced hypotension: impact on hemodynamics, ventricular performance, and venous admixture. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1992; 6: 196–200.
Girard D, Shulman BJ, Thys DM, Mindich BP, Mikula SK, Kaplan JA. The safety and efficacy of esmolol during myocardial revascularization. Anesthesiology 1986; 65: 157–164.
Dyck JB, Maze M, Haack C, Vuorilehto L, Shafer SL. The pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic effects of intravenous and intramuscular dexmedetomidine hydrochloride in adult human volunteers. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 813–820.
Schmeling WT, Kampine JP, Roerig DL, Warltier DC. The effects of the steroisomers of the α2-adrenergic agonist medetomidine on systemic and coronary hemodynamics in conscious dogs. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 499–511.
Kallio A, Scheinin M, Koulu M, et al. Effects of dexmedetomidine, a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, on hemodynamic control mechanisms. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1989; 46: 33–42.
Van Citters RL, Franklin DL, Rushmer RF. Left ventricular dynamics in dogs during anesthesia with alpha-chloralose and sodium pentobarbital. Am J Cardiol 1964; 13: 349–354.
Covert RF, Schreiber MD, Leff AR, White SR, Munoz NM, Torgerson LJ. Oxygen metabolism and catecholamine secretion during chloralose anesthesia in lambs. J Dev Physiol 1992; 17: 125–132.
Covert RF, Drummond WH, Gimotty PA. Chloralose alters circulatory response to α-receptor stimulation and blockade. Am J Physiol 1988; 255: H419–H425.
Harwood TN, Butterworth J, Prielipp RC, et al. The safety and effectiveness of esmolol in the perioperative period in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1999; 13: 555–561.
Ruesch S, Levy JH. Treatment of persistent tachycardia with dexmedetomidine during off-pump cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2002; 95: 316–318.
Vainio O, Ojala M. Medetomidine, an alpha 2-agonist, alleviates post-thoracotomy pain in dogs. Lab Anim 1994; 28: 369–375.
Quon CY, Gorczynski RJ. Pharmacodynamics and onset of action of esmolol in anesthetized dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1986; 237: 912–918.
Gorczynski RJ, Shaffer JE, Lee RJ. Pharmacology of ASL-8052, a novel β-adrenergic receptor antagonist with an ultrashort duration of action. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1983; 5: 668–677.
Daniell HB. Coronary flow alterations on myocardial contractility, oxygen extraction, and oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol 1973; 225: 1020–1025.
Modin A, Pernow J, Lundberg JM. Neuropeptide Y and differential sympathetic control of splenic blood flow and capacitance function in the pig and dog. Acta Physiol Scand 1993; 147: 15–25.
Supple EW, Graham RM, Powell Jr WJ. Direct effects of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation on intravascular systemic capacity in the dog. Hypertension 1988; 11: 352–359.
Flamm SD, Taki J, Moore R, et al. Redistribution of regional and organ blood volume and effect on cardiac function in relation to upright exercise intensity in healthy human subjects. Circulation 1990; 81: 1550–1559.
Laub M, Hvid-Jacobsen K, Hovind P, Kanstrup IL, Christensen NJ, Nielsen SL. Spleen emptying and venous hematocrit in humans during exercise. J Appl Physiol 1993; 74: 1024–1026.
Trippodo NC. Total circulatory capacity in the rat. Effects of epinephrine and vasopressin on compliance and unstressed volume. Circ Res 1981; 49: 923–931.
Fan FC, Chen RY, Schuessler GB, Chien S. Effects of hematocrit variations on regional hemodynamics and oxygen transport in the dog. Am J Physiol 1980; 238: H545–H552.