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The Structure of Financial Supervision in Europe: About Single Financial Supervisors, Twin Peaks and Multiple Financial Supervisors

  • Eddy Wymeersch

Abstract

In Europe, several models for financial supervision have developed over time: from the traditional three-pillar or institutional model (banking insurance and securities), via the intermediate ‘twin peaks’ model, which is closer to a functional approach, to the single or integrated model. Many elements, including market structure, historical and political factors, have determined each State's choice in favour of one of the models. Several States have recently tried to find more efficient and less costly supervisory schemes. A comparative analysis of the features of these models gives indications about the drivers for choosing one of them and the pros and cons that have been advanced. The actual situation in each of the EU States is described. Some conclusions are drawn as to the regulatory structure at EU level.

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* Professor at the University of Gent. This paper was written in a personal capacity.

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The Structure of Financial Supervision in Europe: About Single Financial Supervisors, Twin Peaks and Multiple Financial Supervisors

  • Eddy Wymeersch

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