Modeling of astronomically important atmospheric parameters, and the impact these parameters have on instrument performance, is a powerful tool for assessing the astronomical potential of Antarctic sites. This paper summarizes some of the significant findings from a combination of regional climate modeling and adaptive optics simulations. Together with estimates of the sky background, this work strongly implies that the unique astronomical potential of Dome C – work that can be done at no other location – is high angular resolution science. In particular, the simulations show that diffraction limited resolution in the optical is possible with a modest AO system deployed on a telescope mounted above the Antarctic boundary layer. This potential strongly differentiates Dome C from other sites and suggests a tower-mounted, AO equipped, ~2.5 m class telescope, located at Dome C, could be the premier visible imaging observatory in the post-HST era.