The advent of 8 m class telescopes has allowed the detailed spectroscopic study of sizeable numbers of extremely metal-poor Galactic stars which are the witnesses of the formation of the early Galaxy. Their chemical composition displays some distinctive trends which should provide a strong constraint on the physical nature of the first generation(s) of stars and on their nucleosynthetic output. I will review recent results in the field following the periodic table, from lithium to uranium and shortly comment on the intriguing classes of Carbon Enhanced Metal Poor (CEMP) stars, for many of which there is no analogue among solar metallicity stars. In spite of these exciting results, the number of known stars of metallicity below [Fe/H] = -3.3 remains quite small and it would be desirable to discover more, both to clearly understand the metal-weak tail of Halo metallicity distribution and to clarify the abundance trends at the lowest metallicities. Most of these extremely rare objects have been discovered by the wide field objective prism surveys, HK survey and Hamburg-ESO survey. In the near future the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and its continuation SEGUE are expected to boost significantly the numbers of known extremely metal poor stars. We are living exciting times but an even more exciting future lies ahead!