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The New Global Order: The Power of Principle in a Pluralistic World*

  • Charles W. Kegley

Abstract

Kegley asks whether in a culturally pluralistic global community it is possible to find a common normative principle that statesmen from diverse ethical traditions might embrace to discipline democratic behavior. He sets the stage for a discussion of ethical precepts that transcend artificial boundaries between East and West, North and South.

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1 Fukuyama, Francis, “The End of History?” The National Interest 16 (Summer 1989), pp. 719–32.

2 Hoffmann, Stanley, “What Should We Do in the World?” The Atlantic Monthly 264 (October 1989), pp. 8496.

3 For a survey, see Gaddis, John Lewis, “Toward the Post-Cold War World,” in Kegley, Charles W. Jr., and Wittkopf, Eugene R., eds., The Future of American Foreign Policy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992), pp. 1632.

4 See Banks, Michael, “The International Relations Discipline: Asset or Liability for Conflict Resolution?” in Azar, Edward E. and Burton, John W., eds., International Conflict Resolution (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1986), and Vasquez, John, The Power of Power Politics: A Critique (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1983).

5 Kennan, George F., American Diplomacy 1900–1950 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), p. 42.

6 Morgenthau, Hans J., Politics Among Nations (New York: Knopf, 1958), p. 9.

7 Gordis, Robert, “Religion and International Responsibility,” in Thompson, Kenneth W., ed., Moral Dimensions of American Foreign Policy (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1984), p. 36.

8 Suganami, Hidemi, “A Normative Enquiry in International Relations,” Review of International Studies 9 (January 1983), p. 35.

9 Cohen, Marshall, “Moral Skepticism and International Relations,” in Kipuis, Kenneth and Meyers, Diana T., eds., Political Realism and International Morality (Boulder: Westview Press, 1987), pp. 1516. This argument and distinction is elaborated in Kegley, Charles W. Jr., and Raymond, Gregory A., When Trust Breaks Down: Alliance Norms in World Politics (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1990).

10 Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr., The Cycles of American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986), p. 77.

11 Newman, Charles, “What's Left Out of Literature,” New York Times Book Review (July 7, 1987), p. 25.

12 Wright, Quincy, “The Outlawry of War and the Law of War,” American Journal of International Law 47 (July 1953), pp. 365–76.

13 Mueller, John, “Deterrence, Nuclear Weapons, Morality, and War,” in Kegley, Charles W. Jr., and Schwab, Kenneth L., eds., After the Cold War: Questioning the Morality of Nuclear Deterrence (Boulder: Westview Press, 1991), p. 94.

14 Morgenthau, Hans J., The Purpose of American Politics (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1960), p. 8. This, arguably, is reflective of mainstream realism's position on morality in international affairs; for elaboration, see Rosenthal, Joel H., Righteous Realists (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991).

15 Butterfield, Herbert, The Statecraft of Machiavelli (New York: Collier, 1962), p. 8.

16 See Niebuhr, Reinhold, Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1932).

17 Higgins, Ronald, Plotting Peace (London: Brassey's, 1990), p. 205.

18 Kennan, George F., “Morality and Foreign Affairs,” Foreign Affairs 64 (Winter 1985–86), p. 208.

19 See Bernardin, Joseph Cardinal, “Ordering Our Destiny: Politics, Strategy, and Ethics,” in Kegley and Schwab, After the Cold War, pp. 149–56.

20 Mueller, John, “The Obsolescence of Major War,” in Kegley, Charles W. Jr., and Wittkopf, Eugene R., eds., The Global Agenda, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992), pp. 3948.

21 Cited in McNamara, Robert S., “Alternative Visions of a Post-Cold War World,” Wingspread 13 (Summer 1991), p. 12.

22 Luttwak, Edward, “From Geopolitics to Geo-Economics,” The National Interest 20 (Summer 1990), pp. 1723.

23 Moran, Theodore H., “International Economics and U.S. Security,” in Kegley, Charles W. Jr., and Wittkopf, Eugene R., eds., The Future of American Foreign Policy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992), p. 337.

24 Nye, Joseph S. Jr., “The Changing Nature of World Power,” in Kegley, Charles W. Jr., and Wittkopf, Eugene R., eds., The Global Agenda, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992), p. 318.

25 See Rosenau, James N., Turbulence in World Politics: Toward a Theory of Change and Continuity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).

26 Joffe, Josef, “Entangled Forever,” in Kegley, Charles W. Jr., and Wittkopf, Eugene R., eds., The Future of American Foreign Policy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992), p. 35.

27 Gaddis, John Lewis, “Coping with Victory,” in Kegley, Charles W. Jr., and Wittkopf, Eugene R., eds., The Future of American Foreign Policy (New York: St Martin's Press, 1992), p. 146.

28 Morgenthau, Hans J., In Defense of the National Interest (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1951), p. 242.

29 See Stoessinger, John G., Crusaders and Pragmatists (New York: Norton, 1985).

30 See VanEvera, Stephen, “American Intervention in the Third World: Less Would Be Better,” in Kegley and Wittkopf, The Future of American Foreign Policy, pp. 285300.

31 Herz, John H., Political Realism and Political Idealism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951).

32 Kegley, Charles W. Jr., “Neo-Idealism: A Practical Matter,” Ethics & International Affairs 2 (1988), pp. 173–97, and Kegley, Charles W. Jr., “The Lost Legacy: Idealism in American Foreign Policy,” USA Today 117 (March 1989), pp. 2527.

33 Kober, Stanley, “Idealpolitik,” Foreign Policy 79 (Summer 1990), pp. 324.

34 Gaddis, “Coping with Victory,” p. 28.

35 This rule, moreover, is deeply rooted in political philosophy worldwide since antiquity. Consider Diogenes Laërtius' dictum, “We ought to behave to our friends … as we wish our friends to behave toward us”; Isocrates' adage, “Do not do to others what angers you if done to you by others”; Pittacus' injunction, “Do not that to thy neighbor that thou wouldst not suffer for him;” Plato's statement of the same principle, “Do to others as I would say they should do to me;” and Hillel's pronouncement, “What is hateful to thyself do not do to another. This is the whole Law, the rest is Commentary.”

36 Komorita, S. S., Hilty, J. A., and Parks, C. D., “Reciprocity and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 35 (September 1991), p. 495.

37 See Axelrod, Robert, The Evolution of Cooperation (New York: Basic Books, 1984), for an elaboration and demonstration of this principle.

38 Rielly, John E., “Public Opinion: The Pulse of the ′90s,” in Kegley and Wittkopf, The Future of American Foreign Policy, p. 125.

39 Americans Talk Security, Compendium: Results from Twelve National Surveys on National Security Issues Conducted from October 1987 to December 1989 (Boston: Americans Talk Security, 1988), pp. 287–89.

40 Rielly, “Public Opinion.”.

41 See Diebel, Terry L., “Bush's Foreign Policy: Mastery and Inaction,” Foreign Policy 84 (Fall 1991), pp. 323.

42 See Kennedy, Paul, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (New York: Random House, 1987).

43 Calleo, David, “American National Interests and the New Europe: The Millennium Has Not Yet Arrived,” in Kegley and Wittkopf, The Future of American Foreign Policy, p. 190.

44 See Carpenter, Ted Galen, “The New World Disorder,” Foreign Policy 84 (Fall 1991), pp. 2439.

45 Gergen, David, “A New American Order,” US. News and World Report (June 17, 1991), p. 68.

46 Weisband, Edward, The Ideology of American Foreign Policy: A Paradigm of Lockean Liberalism (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1973).

47 Dolbeare, Kenneth M. and Dolbeare, Patricia, American Ideologies (Chicago: Markham, 1971).

48 Lipsitz, Lewis and Speak, David M., American Democracy, 2nd ed. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989).

49 Cited in Gaddis, “Toward the Post-Cold War World,” p. 30.

50 Patterson, James and Kim, Peter, The Day America Told the Truth: What People Really Believe About Everything That Really Matters (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991).

51 Schlesinger, , The Cycles of American History, p. 73.

52 Ibid., p. 17.

53 See Kegley, Charles W. Jr., “The New Containment Myth: Realism and the Anomaly of European Integration,” Ethics & International Affairs 5 (1991), pp. 99114.

54 Carpenter, “The New World Disorder,” pp. 37–38.

* This is a revised version of a paper prepared for presentation at the “Europe and Its Values in the New International Society” Conference, cosponsored by the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs and the Gasperi Institute, Rome, Italy, November 7–9, 1991.

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