2 Tim Poletti, Healthcare Financing in Complex Emergencies: A Background Issues Paper on Cost-Sharing, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, November 2003.
6 See de Torrenté, Nicolas, “Humanitarian Action under Attack: Reflections on the Iraq War,” Harvard Human Rights Journal 17 (Spring 2004), pp. 1–30.
7 One leaflet pictured an Afghan girl carrying a bag of wheat and read: “Pass on any information related to Taliban, Al Qaeda and Gulbaddin to the coalition forces in order to have a continuation of the provision of humanitarian aid.” Another leaflet read: “Any attacks on coalition forces hinder humanitarian aid from reaching your areas.” See Kenny Gluck, “Coalition Forces Endanger Humanitarian Action in Afghanistan”; available at http://www.msf.org/countries/page.cfm?articleid409F102D-A77A-4C94-89EOA47D7213B4D5.
9 Bradol, Jean-Hervé, “The Sacrificial International Order and Humanitarian Action,” in Weiss-man, Fabrice, ed., In the Shadow of ‘Just’ Wars: Violence, Politics, and Humanitarian Action (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2004 ), p. 5.
11 See Anderson, Mary B., Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support Peace—or War (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1999). Anderson does argue that aid is good, and that her focus is not on removing it but on making it better. However, there is little discussion of how a potential conflict of interest between peace promotion and immediate relief should be handled, opening the door for interpretations that promote minimizing or even withholding aid in order to “do no harm.”
12 See Ian Smillie and Larry Minear, “The Quality of Money: Donor Behavior in Humanitarian Financing,” Humanitarianism and War Project, April 2003; James Darcy and Charles-Antoine Hoffman, “Humanitarian Needs Assessment and Decision-Making,” Overseas Development Institute, September 2003; available at http://www.odi.org.uk/hpg/papers/hpgbriefi3.pdf.
13 Bryer, “Politics and Humanitarianism,” p. 13.
14 Bradol, “The Sacrificial International Order and Humanitarian Action,” p. 16.
17 See, e.g., O'Brien, Paul, “Politicized Humanitarianism: A Response to Nicolas de Torrenté,” Harvard Human Rights Journal 17 (Spring 2004), pp. 31–41.
18 On the approach of aid organizations, in particular U.S.-based NGOs, toward the U.S. government before and during the war in Iraq, see de Torrente, “Humanitarian Action under Attack,” pp. 1–30.
19 See, e.g., O'Brien, “Politicized Humanitarianism.”
20 For arguments in favor of a “variable” humanitarian-ism, see Slim, Hugo, “A Call to Arms: Humanitarian Action and the Art of War” (Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, February 2004).