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Translating the BDI and BDI-II into the HAMD and vice versa with equipercentile linking

  • Toshi A. Furukawa (a1), Mirjam Reijnders (a2), Sanae Kishimoto (a3), Masatsugu Sakata (a3), Robert J. DeRubeis (a4), Sona Dimidjian (a5), David J.A. Dozois (a6), Ulrich Hegerl (a7), Steven D. Hollon (a8), Robin B. Jarrett (a9), François Lespérance (a10), Zindel V. Segal (a11), David C. Mohr (a12), Anne D. Simons (a13), Lena C. Quilty (a14), Charles F. Reynolds (a15), Claudio Gentili (a16), Stefan Leucht (a17), Rolf R. Engel (a18) and Pim Cuijpers (a2)...



The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.


We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.


The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.


The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Toshi A. Furukawa, E-mail:


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