Aas, IM (2010) Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): properties and frontier of current knowledge. Annals of General Psychiatry 9, 20.
Adewuya, AO and Makanjuola, ROA (2009) Subjective quality of life of Nigerian schizophrenia patients: sociodemographic and clinical correlates. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 120, 160–164.
Akinsulore, A, Aloba, OO, Mapayi, BM, Oloniniyi, IO, Fatoye, FO and Makanjuola, RO (2014) Relationship between depressive symptoms and quality of life in Nigerian patients with schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49, 1191–1198.
Alessandrini, M, Lançon, C, Fond, G, Faget-Agius, C, Richieri, R, Faugere, M, Metairie, E, Boucekine, M, Llorca, PM, Auquier, P and Boyer, L (2016) A structural equation modelling approach to explore the determinants of quality of life in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 171, 27–34.
Ascher-Svanum, H, Novick, D, Haro, JM, Aguado, J and Cui, Z (2013). Empirically driven definitions of “good,” “moderate,” and “poor” levels of functioning in the treatment of schizophrenia. Quality of Life Research 22, 2085–2094.
Atkinson, M, Zibin, S and Chuang, H (1997) Characterizing quality of life among patients with chronic mental illness: a critical examination of the self-report methodology. American Journal of Psychiatry 154, 99–105.
Awad, AG, Voruganti, LN and Heslegrave, RJ (1997) Measuring quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. PharmacoEconomics 11, 32–47.
Bai, YM, Hsiao, CY, Chen, KC, Huang, KL, Lee, IH, Hsu, JW, Chen, PS and Yang, YK (2014) The development of a self-reported scale for measuring functionality in patients with schizophrenia-Self-reported version of the graphic Personal and Social Performance (SRG-PSP) scale. Schizophrenia Research 159, 546–551.
Baker, F and Intagliata, J (1982) Quality of life in the evaluation of community support systems. Evaluation and Program Planning 5, 69–79.
Becker, T, Leese, M, Krumm, S, Ruggeri, M and Vazquez-Barquero, JL (2005) Needs and quality of life among patients with schizophrenia in five European centres: what is the impact of global functioning scores? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 40, 628–634.
Bellack, AS, Green, MF, Cook, JA, Fenton, W, Harvey, PD, Heaton, RK, Laughren, T, Leon, AC, Mayo, DJ, Patrick, DL, Patterson, TL, Rose, A, Stover, E and Wykes, T (2007) Assessment of community functioning in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses: a white paper based on an NIMH-sponsored workshop. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 805–822.
Ben-Zur, H, Duvdevany, I and Saffoury Issa, D (2014) Ethnicity moderates the effects of resources on quality of life for persons with mental illness living in community settings. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 37, 309–315.
Bengtsson-Tops, A, Hansson, L, Sandlund, M, Bjarnason, O, Korkeila, J, Merinder, L, Nilsson, L, Sørgaard, KW, Vinding, HR and Middelboe, T (2005) Subjective versus interviewer assessment of global quality of life among persons with schizophrenia living in the community: a Nordic multicentre study. Quality of Life Research 14, 221–229.
Bowling, A (2005) Measuring Health: a Review of Quality of Life Measurement Scales. Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
Brissos, S, Balanza-Martinez, V, Dias, VV, Carita, AI and Figueira, ML (2011) Is personal and social functioning associated with subjective quality of life in schizophrenia patients living in the community? European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience 261, 509–517.
Browne, S, Roe, M, Lane, A, Gervin, M, Morris, M, Kinsella, A, Larkin, C and O'Callaghan, E (1996) Quality of life in schizophrenia: relationship to sociodemographic factors, symptomatology and tardive dyskinesia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 94, 118–124.
Caqueo-Urízar, A, Urzúa, A, Boyer, L, Williams, D, Caqueo-Urízar, A, Urzúa, A and Williams, DR (2016) Religion involvement and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in Latin America. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 51, 521–528.
Caron, J, Lecomte, Y, Stip, E and Renaud, S (2005) Predictors of quality of life in schizophrenia. Community Mental Health Journal 41, 399–417, 19p.
Chan, GWL, Ungvari, GS, Shek, DTL and Leung, JJP (2003) Hospital and community-based care for patients with chronic schizophrenia in Hong Kong quality of life and its correlates. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 38, 196–203.
Chino, B, Nemoto, T, Fujii, C and Mizuno, M (2009) Subjective assessments of the quality of life, well-being and self-efficacy in patients with schizophrenia: regular article. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 63, 521–528.
Cohen, J (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences L. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates.
Cohen, CI, Jimenez, C and Mittal, S (2010) The role of religion in the well-being of older adults with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services 61, 917–922.
Dima, L, Vasile, D, Rogozea, L, Zia-Ul-Haq, M, Bukhari, SA and Moga, M (2015) Self-perception of quality of life in patients treated with antipsychotics. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 45, 782–788.
Elkinton, JR (1966) Medicine and the quality of life. Annals of Internal Medicine 64, 711–714.
Fayers, PM and Machin, D (2016) Quality of Life: The Assessment, Analysis and Reporting of Patient-Reported Outcomes. Chichester, Sussex UK: Wiley Blackwell.
Fricker, S, Yan, T and Tsai, S (2014) Response burden: what predicts it and who is burdened out? In AAPOR Proceedings, American Association for Public Opinion Research, Anaheim, California, May 15–18, 2014, pp. 4568–4577.
Fujino, H, Sumiyoshi, C, Sumiyoshi, T, Yasuda, Y, Yamamori, H, Ohi, K, Fujimoto, M, Hashimoto, R, Takeda, M and Imura, O (2016) Predicting employment status and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research: Cognition 3, 20–25.
Gaite, L, Vazquez-Barquero, JL, Borra, C, Ballesteros, J, Schene, A, Welcher, B, Thornicroft, G, Becker, T, Ruggeri, M and Herran, A (2002) Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in five European countries: the EPSILON study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 105, 283–292.
Galuppi, A, Turola, MC, Nanni, MG, Mazzoni, P and Grassi, L (2010) Schizophrenia and quality of life: how important are symptoms and functioning? International Journal of Mental Health Systems 4, 31.
Greenley, JR, Greenberg, JS and Brown, R (1997) Measuring quality of life: a new and practical survey instrument. Social Work 42, 244–254.
Grover, S, Davuluri, T and Chakrabarti, S (2014) Religion, spirituality, and schizophrenia: a review. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 36, 119.
Guilera, G, Gomez-Benito, J, Pino, O, Rojo, JE, Cuesta, MJ, Martinez-Aran, A, Safont, G, Tabares-Seisdedos, R, Vieta, E, Bernardo, M, Crespo-Facorro, B, Franco, M and Rejas, J (2012) Utility of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 138, 240–247.
Harvey, PD (2014). What is the evidence for changes in cognition and functioning over the lifespan in patients with schizophrenia? The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 75(Suppl. 2), 34–38.
Harvey, PD and Davidson, M (2002) Schizophrenia: Course Over the Lifetime. In Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress (ed. Davis, KL, Charney, D, Coyle, JT and Nemeroff, C), pp. 641–655. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Heinrichs, DW, Hanlon, TE and Carpenter, WT (1984) The Quality of Life Scale: an instrument for rating the schizophrenic deficit syndrome. Schizophrenia Bulletin 10, 388–398.
Holloway, F and Carson, J (1999) Subjective quality of life, psychopathology, satisfaction with care and insight: an exploratory study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 45, 259–267.
Hosseini, SH and Yousefi, MK (2011) Quality of life and GAF in schizophrenia correlation between quality of life and global functioning in schizophrenia. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 5, 120–125.
Hunter, R and Barry, S (2012) Negative symptoms and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: neglected but important targets for treatment. European Psychiatry 27, 432–436.
Ito, S, Nemoto, T, Tsujino, N, Ohmuro, N, Matsumoto, K, Matsuoka, H, Tanaka, K, Nishiyama, S, Suzuki, M, Kinoshita, H, Ozawa, H, Fujita, H, Shimodera, S, Kishimoto, T, Matsumoto, K, Hasegawa, T and Mizuno, M (2015) Differential impacts of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) on cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia according to mode of onset. European Psychiatry 30, 995–1001.
Karadayi, G, Emiroglu, B and Ucok, A (2011) Relationship of symptomatic remission with quality of life and functionality in patients with schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 52, 701–707.
König, H-H, Roick, C and Angermeyer, MC (2007) Validity of the EQ-5D in assessing and valuing health status in patients with schizophrenic, schizotypal or delusional disorders. European Psychiatry 22, 177–187.
Kuo, PJ, Ma, HI, Kuo, CC, Huang, WC and Chung, MS (2009) Factor analysis of the schizophrenia quality of life scale revision 4 (SQLS-R4) Chinese version and related factors. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 13, 278–284.
Kusel, Y, Laugharne, R, Perrington, S, McKendrick, J, Stephenson, D, Stockton-Henderson, J, Barley, M, McCaul, R and Burns, T (2007) Measurement of quality of life in schizophrenia: a comparison of two scales. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 42, 819–823.
Lasebikan, VO and Owoaje, ET (2015) Quality of life in psychosis: prevalence and associated factors in a Nigerian clinical population. Community Mental Health Journal 51, 491–496.
Lehman, AF (1988) A quality of life interview for the chronically mentally ill. Evaluation and Program Planning 11, 51–62.
Lehman, AF (1995) Demographic influences on quality of life among persons with chronic mental illnesses. Evaluation and Program Planning 18, 155–164.
Mas-Exposito, L, Amador-Campos, JA, Gomez-Benito, J and Lalucat-Jo, L (2011) The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version: a validation study in patients with schizophrenia. Quality of life Research 20, 1079–1089.
Medeiros-Ferreira, L, Obiols, JE, Navarro-Pastor, JB and Zuniga-Lagares, A (2013) Metabolic syndrome and health-related quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Actas Espanolas de Psiquiatria 41, 17–26.
Meijer, CJ, Schene, AH and Koeter, MW (2002) Quality of life in schizophrenia measured by the MOS SF-36 and the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile: a comparison. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 105, 293–300.
Meijer, CJ, Koeter, MW, Sprangers, MA and Schene, AH (2009) Predictors of general quality of life and the mediating role of health related quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 44, 361–368.
Miclutia, IV, Popescu, CA and Macrea, RS (2008) Sexual dysfunctions of chronic schizophrenic female patients. Sexual & Relationship Therapy 23, 119–129.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J and Altman, DG, and the PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine 151, 264–269.
Mubarak, AR (2005) Social functioning and quality of life of people with schizophrenia in the northern region of Malaysia. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health 4, 1–10.
Nafees, B, van Hanswijck de Jonge, P, Stull, D, Pascoe, K, Price, M, Clarke, A and Turkington, D (2012) Reliability and validity of the Personal and Social Performance scale in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 140, 71–76.
Norman, RMG, Malla, AK, McLean, T, Voruganti, LPN, Cortese, L, McIntosh, E, Cheng, S and Rickwood, A (2000) The relationship of symptoms and level of functioning in schizophrenia to general wellbeing and the Quality of Life Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 102, 303–309.
Patterson, TL, Goldman, S, McKibbin, CL, Hughs, T and Jeste, DV (2001) UCSD performance-based skills assessment: development of a new measure of everyday functioning for severely mentally Ill adults. Schizophrenia Bulletin 27, 235–245.
Petho, B and Ban, TA (1988) DCR Budapest-Nashville in the diagnosis and classification of functional psychoses. Psychopathology 21, 149–240.
Pinikahana, J, Happell, B, Hope, J and Keks, NA (2002) Quality of life in schizophrenia: a review of the literature from 1995 to 2000. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 11, 103–111.
Pitkanen, A, Valimaki, M, Endicott, J, Katajisto, J, Luukkaala, T, Koivunen, M, Kuosmanen, L and Hatonen, H (2012) Assessing quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in an acute psychiatric setting: reliability, validity and feasibility of the EQ-5D and the Q-LES-Q. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 66, 19–25.
Prigent, A, Simon, S, Durand-Zaleski, I, Leboyer, M and Chevreul, K (2014) Quality of life instruments used in mental health research: properties and utilization. Psychiatry Research 215, 1–8.
Prince, JD (2007) Education, ethnicity, and subjective life quality of recently discharged inpatients with schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 195, 560–565.
PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York. (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk). Accessed 13 August 2018.
Razali, SM and Wahid, MA (2012) Quality of life and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. International Medical Journal 19, 130–134.
Reine, G, Simeoni, MC, Auquier, P, Loundou, A, Aghababian, V and Lancon, C (2005) Assessing health-related quality of life in patients suffering from schizophrenia: a comparison of instruments. European Psychiatry 20, 510–519.
Riedel, M, Spellmann, I, Schennach-Wolff, R, Obermeier, M and Musil, R (2011) The RSM-scale: a pilot study on a new specific scale for self- and observer-rated quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Quality of Life Research 20, 263–272.
Ritsner, M, Kurs, R, Ratner, Y and Gibel, A (2005) Condensed version of the Quality of Life Scale for schizophrenia for use in outcome studies. Psychiatry Research 135, 65–75.
Rocca, P, Montemagni, C, Zappia, S, Pitera, R, Sigaudo, M and Bogetto, F (2014) Negative symptoms and everyday functioning in schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study in a real world-setting. Psychiatry Research 218, 284–289.
Rocca, P, Montemagni, C, Mingrone, C, Crivelli, B, Sigaudo, M and Bogetto, F (2016) A cluster-analytical approach toward real-world outcome in outpatients with stable schizophrenia. European Psychiatry 32, 48–54.
Roe, D, Mashiach-Eizenberg, M and Lysaker, PH (2011) The relation between objective and subjective domains of recovery among persons with schizophrenia-related disorders. Schizophrenia Research 131, 133–138.
Sainfort, F, Becker, M and Diamond, R (1996) Judgments of quality of life of individuals with severe mental disorders: patient self-report versus provider perspectives. The American Journal of Psychiatry 153, 497–502.
Stroup, DF, Berlin, JA, Morton, SC, Olkin, I, Williamson, GD, Rennie, D, Moher, D, Becker, BJ, Sipe, TA and Thacker, SB (2000) Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Journal of the American Medical Association 283, 2008–2012.
Stubbs, B, Gardner-Sood, P, Smith, S, Ismail, K, Greenwood, K, Patel, A, Farmer, R and Gaughran, F (2015) Pain is independently associated with reduced health related quality of life in people with psychosis. Psychiatry Research 230, 585–591.
Taft, C, Karlsson, J and Sullivan, M (2001) Do SF-36 summary component scores accurately summarize subscale scores? Quality of Life Research 10, 395–404.
The WHOQOL Group (1998) Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine 28, 551–558.
Ulrich, CM, Wallen, GR, Feister, A and Grady, C (2005) Respondent burden in clinical research: when are we asking too much of subjects? IRB: Ethics & Human Research 27, 17–20.
von Elm, E, Altman, DG, Egger, M, Pocock, SJ, Gøtzsche, PC and Vandenbroucke, JP (2007) The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85, 867–872.
Ware, JE Jr, Kosinski, M, Bayliss, MS, McHorney, CA, Rogers, WH and Raczek, A (1995). Comparison of methods for the scoring and statistical analysis of SF-36 health profile and summary measures: summary of results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Medical Care 33, AS264-AS279.
Woon, PS, Chia, MY, Chan, WY and Sim, K (2010) Neurocognitive, clinical and functional correlates of subjective quality of life in Asian outpatients with schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 34, 463–468.
World Health Organization. Division of Mental Health and Prevention of Substance Abuse (1998) Programme on mental health: WHOQOL user manual. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (2001) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: ICF. Geneva: WHO.
Zendjidjian, XY, Baumstarck, K, Auquier, P, Loundou, A, Lançon, C and Boyer, L (2014) Satisfaction of hospitalized psychiatry patients: why should clinicians care? Patient Preference and Adherence 8, 575–583.