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Social integration in global mental health: what is it and how can it be measured?

  • J. N. Baumgartner (a1) (a2) and E. Susser (a1) (a3)



Global mental health movements increasingly highlight social integration as a key outcome for mental health services. This creates a pressing need to better articulate and measure this outcome. Much of the work in social integration thus far has been in high-income countries (HIC), and is not directly applicable across diverse socio-cultural environments. We discuss promising concepts and measures of social integration with potential for global cross-cultural application. Then, we present some of the challenges of developing measures for global and cross-cultural use, and suggest ways to confront these challenges. Although we focus primarily on adults with severe mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the questions we raise are also relevant to children, other mental disorders and HIC.


We identify and describe four distinct conceptual frameworks for social integration that have emerged over the past decade. Then, we discuss the challenge of developing corresponding measures, and the further challenge of developing global cross-cultural measures. We suggest that a key concept shared across much previous and emerging work is active participation in community and civic life. As a platform for future development of global cross-cultural measures of this and other concepts, we propose guidelines and present examples of feasible, previously used strategies.


Emerging concepts of social integration hold great promise, but as yet, there are no corresponding measures suitable for global cross-cultural use. We propose that it is feasible to develop such measures, and that their development will facilitate the advance of community mental health services and the science of global mental health.


Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: J. N. Baumgartner, Global Mental Health Program, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. (Email:;


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Social integration in global mental health: what is it and how can it be measured?

  • J. N. Baumgartner (a1) (a2) and E. Susser (a1) (a3)


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