Advance Management Committee (2001) Rationale and design of the ADVANCE study: a randomised trial of blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Action in diabetes and vascular disease: preterAx and DiamicroN modified-release controlled evaluation. Journal of Hypertension 19(S1), S21–S28.
Amthauer, R, Brocke, B, Liepman, D and Beauducel, A (2000) Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe-Verlag GmbH, Co. KG.
Areosa Sastre, A, Vernooij, RW, Gonzalez-Colaco Harmand, M and Martinez, G (2017) Effect of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Systematic Review 6, Cd003804.
Arnold, SE, Arvanitakis, Z, Macauley-Rambach, SL, Koenig, AM, Wang, HY, Ahima, RS, Craft, S, Gandy, S, Buettner, C, Stoeckel, LE, Holtzman, DM and Nathan, DM (2018) Brain insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer disease: concepts and conundrums. Nature Reviews Neurology 14, 168–181.
Avadhani, R, Fowler, K, Barbato, C, Thomas, S, Wong, W, Paul, C, Aksakal, M, Hauser, TH, Weinger, K and Goldfine, AB (2015) Glycemia and cognitive function in metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. American Journal of Medicine 128, 46–55.
Avlund, K, Osler, M, Mortensen, EL, Christensen, U, Bruunsgaard, H, Holm-Pedersen, P, Fiehn, NE, Hansen, AM, Bachkati, SH, Meincke, RH, Jepsen, E, Molbo, D and Lund, R (2014) Copenhagen aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB): an introduction. Journal of Aging and Health 26, 5–20.
Blazquez, E, Velazquez, E, Hurtado-Carneiro, V and Ruiz-Albusac, JM (2014) Insulin in the brain: its pathophysiological implications for states related with central insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Endocrinology 5, 161–163.
Carstensen, B, Kristensen, JK, Marcussen, MM and Borch-Johnsen, K (2011) The National Diabetes Register. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 39(7S), 58–61.
Chatterjee, S, Peters, SA, Woodward, M, Mejia Arango, S, Batty, GD, Beckett, N, Beiser, A, Borenstein, AR, Crane, PK, Haan, M, Hassing, LB, Hayden, KM, Kiyohara, Y, Larson, EB, Li, CY, Ninomiya, T, Ohara, T, Peters, R, Russ, TC, Seshadri, S, Strand, BH, Walker, R, Xu, W and Huxley, RR (2016) Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for dementia in women compared with men: a pooled analysis of 2.3 million people comprising more than 100 000 cases of dementia. Diabetes Care 39, 300–307.
Cheng, G, Huang, C, Deng, H and Wang, H (2012) Diabetes as a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Internal Medicine Journal 42, 484–491.
Crane, PK, Walker, R, Hubbard, RA, Li, G, Nathan, DM, Zheng, H, Haneuse, S, Craft, S, Montine, TJ, Kahn, SE, McCormick, W, McCurry, SM, Bowen, JD and Larson, EB (2013) Glucose levels and risk of dementia. New England Journal of Medicine 369, 540–548.
Cukierman-Yaffe, T, Gerstein, HC, Williamson, JD, Lazar, RM, Lovato, L, Miller, ME, Coker, LH, Murray, A, Sullivan, MD, Marcovina, SM and Launer, LJ and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes-Memory in Diabetes I (2009) Relationship between baseline glycemic control and cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors: the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes-memory in diabetes (ACCORD-MIND) trial. Diabetes Care 32, 221–226.
Dantoft, TM, Ebstrup, JF, Linneberg, A, Skovbjerg, S, Madsen, AL, Mehlsen, J, Brinth, L, Eplov, LF, Carstensen, TW, Schroder, A, Fink, PK, Mortensen, EL, Hansen, T, Pedersen, O and Jorgensen, T (2017) Cohort description: the Danish study of functional disorders. Clinical Epidemiology 9, 127–139.
Dik, MG, Jonker, C, Comijs, HC, Deeg, DJ, Kok, A, Yaffe, K and Penninx, BW (2007) Contribution of metabolic syndrome components to cognition in older individuals. Diabetes Care 30, 2655–2660.
Gao, L, Matthews, FE, Sargeant, LA, Brayne, C and Mrc, C (2008) An investigation of the population impact of variation in HbA1c levels in older people in England and Wales: from a population based multi-centre longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 8, 54.
Griffin, SJ, Borch-Johnsen, K, Davies, MJ, Khunti, K, Rutten, GE, Sandbaek, A, Sharp, SJ, Simmons, RK, van den Donk, M, Wareham, NJ and Lauritzen, T (2011) Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening (ADDITION-Europe): a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet 378, 156–167.
Haroon, NN, Austin, PC, Shah, BR, Wu, J, Gill, SS and Booth, GL (2015) Risk of dementia in seniors with newly diagnosed diabetes: a population-based study. Diabetes Care 38, 1868–1875.
Hassing, LB, Johansson, B, Nilsson, SE, Berg, S, Pedersen, NL, Gatz, M and McClearn, G (2002) Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for vascular dementia, but not for Alzheimer's disease: a population-based study of the oldest old. International Psychogeriatrics 14, 239–248.
Heitner, J and Dickson, D (1997) Diabetics do not have increased Alzheimer-type pathology compared with age-matched control subjects. A retrospective postmortem immunocytochemical and histofluorescent study. Neurology 49, 1306–1311.
Jorgensen, T, Borch-Johnsen, K, Thomsen, TF, Ibsen, H, Glumer, C and Pisinger, C (2003) A randomized non-pharmacological intervention study for prevention of ischaemic heart disease: baseline results Inter99. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 10, 377–386.
Jorgensen, T, Jacobsen, RK, Toft, U, Aadahl, M, Glumer, C and Pisinger, C (2014) Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population: Inter99 randomised trial. British Medical Journal 348, g3617.
Katon, W, Pedersen, HS, Ribe, AR, Fenger-Gron, M, Davydow, D, Waldorff, FB and Vestergaard, M (2015) Effect of depression and diabetes mellitus on the risk for dementia: a national population-based cohort study. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 612–629.
Kimm, H, Lee, PH, Shin, YJ, Park, KS, Jo, J, Lee, Y, Kang, HC and Jee, SH (2011) Mid-life and late-life vascular risk factors and dementia in Korean men and women. Archives Gerontolology and Geriatrics 52, e117–e122.
Kuo, CL, Lu, CL, Chang, YH and Li, CY (2018) Population-based cohort study on dementia risk in patients with type 1 diabetes Mellitus. Neuroepidemiology 50, 57–62.
Lauritzen, T, Griffin, S, Borch-Johnsen, K, Wareham, NJ, Wolffenbuttel, BH and Rutten, G and Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary C (2000). The ADDITION study: proposed trial of the cost-effectiveness of an intensive multifactorial intervention on morbidity and mortality among people with type 2 diabetes detected by screening. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders 24(Suppl. 3), S6–11.
Lauritzen, T, Sandbaek, A, Skriver, MV and Borch-Johnsen, K (2011) Hba1c and cardiovascular risk score identify people who may benefit from preventive interventions: a 7 year follow-up of a high-risk screening programme for diabetes in primary care (ADDITION), Denmark. Diabetologia 54, 1318–1326.
Nielsen, RB, Egefjord, L, Angleys, H, Mouridsen, K, Gejl, M, Moller, A, Brock, B, Braendgaard, H, Gottrup, H, Rungby, J, Eskildsen, SF and Ostergaard, L (2017) Capillary dysfunction is associated with symptom severity and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers and Dementia 13, 1143–1153.
Osler, M, Linneberg, A, Glumer, C and Jorgensen, T (2011) The cohorts at the research centre for prevention and health, formerly ‘The Glostrup Population Studies’. International Journal of Epidemiology 40, 602–610.
Pedersen, CB (2011) The Danish Civil Registration System. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 39(/S), 22–25.
Phung, TK, Andersen, BB, Hogh, P, Kessing, LV, Mortensen, PB and Waldemar, G (2007) Validity of dementia diagnoses in the Danish hospital registers. Dementia Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 24, 220–228.
Ramirez, A, Wolfsgruber, S, Lange, C, Kaduszkiewicz, H, Weyerer, S, Werle, J, Pentzek, M, Fuchs, A, Riedel-Heller, SG, Luck, T, Mosch, E, Bickel, H, Wiese, B, Prokein, J, Konig, HH, Brettschneider, C, Breteler, MM, Maier, W, Jessen, F, Scherer, M and AgeCoDe Study, G (2015) Elevated HbA1c is associated with increased risk of incident dementia in primary care patients. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 44, 1203–1212.
Rothman, KJ (1976) Causes. American Journal of Epidemiology 104, 587–592.
Salem, LC, Andersen, BB, Nielsen, TR, Stokholm, J, Jørgensen, MB, Rasmussen, MH and Waldemar, G (2012) Overdiagnosis of dementia in young patients – a nationwide register-based study.. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 34, 292–299.
Sherzai, D, Sherzai, A, Lui, K, Pan, D, Chiou, D, Bazargan, M and Shaheen, M (2016) The association between diabetes and dementia among elderly individuals: a nationwide inpatient sample analysis. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 29, 120–125.
Smolina, K, Wotton, CJ and Goldacre, MJ (2015) Risk of dementia in patients hospitalised with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England, 1998–2011: a retrospective national record linkage cohort study. Diabetologia 58, 942–950.
Thuesen, BH, Cerqueira, C, Aadahl, M, Ebstrup, JF, Toft, U, Thyssen, JP, Fenger, RV, Hersoug, LG, Elberling, J, Pedersen, O, Hansen, T, Johansen, JD, Jorgensen, T and Linneberg, A (2014) Cohort profile: the Health2006 cohort, research centre for prevention and health. International Journal of Epidemiology 43, 568–575.
Thygesen, SK, Christiansen, CF, Christensen, S, Lash, TL and Sørensen, HT (2011) The predictive value of ICD-10 diagnostic coding used to assess Charlson comorbidity index conditions in the population-based Danish National Registry of Patients. BMC medical research methodology 11, 83.
Umegaki, H (2014) Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for cognitive impairment: current insights. Clinical Intervention & Aging 9, 1011–1019.
Wang, KC, Woung, LC, Tsai, MT, Liu, CC, Su, YH and Li, CY (2012) Risk of Alzheimer's disease in relation to diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Neuroepidemiology 38, 237–244.
Yaffe, K, Kanaya, A, Lindquist, K, Simonsick, EM, Harris, T, Shorr, RI, Tylavsky, FA and Newman, AB (2004) The metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and risk of cognitive decline. Journal of American Medical Association 292, 2237–2242.
Zhang, J, Chen, C, Hua, S, Liao, H, Wang, M, Xiong, Y and Cao, F (2017) An updated meta-analysis of cohort studies: diabetes and risk of Alzheimer's disease. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 124, 41–47.