Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Mental disorders and the risk of adult violent and psychological victimisation: a prospective, population-based study

  • C. Christ (a1) (a2) (a3), M. Ten Have (a4), R. de Graaf (a4), D. J. F. van Schaik (a1) (a3), M. J. Kikkert (a2), J. J. M. Dekker (a2) (a5) and A. T. F. Beekman (a1) (a3)...

Abstract

Aims

Psychiatric patients are at increased risk to become victim of violence. It remains unknown whether subjects of the general population with mental disorders are at risk of victimisation as well. In addition, it remains unclear whether the risk of victimisation differs across specific disorders. This study aimed to determine whether a broad range of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders at baseline predict adult violent (physical and/or sexual) and psychological victimisation at 3-year follow-up, also after adjustment for childhood trauma. Furthermore, this study aimed to examine whether specific types of childhood trauma predict violent and psychological victimisation at follow-up, after adjustment for mental disorder. Finally, this study aimed to examine whether the co-occurrence of childhood trauma and any baseline mental disorder leads to an incrementally increased risk of future victimisation.

Methods

Data were derived from the first two waves of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2): a psychiatric epidemiological cohort study among a nationally representative adult population. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Longitudinal associations between 12 mental disorders at baseline and violent and psychological victimisation at 3-year follow-up (n = 5303) were studied using logistic regression analyses, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and childhood trauma. Furthermore, the moderating effect of childhood trauma on these associations was examined.

Results

Associations with victimisation varied considerably across specific mental disorders. Only alcohol dependence predicted both violent and psychological victimisation after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and childhood trauma. Depression, panic disorder, social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence predicted subsequent psychological victimisation in the fully adjusted models. All types of childhood trauma independently predicted violent and psychological victimisation after adjustment for any mental disorder. The presence of any childhood trauma moderated the association between any anxiety disorder and psychological victimisation, whereas no interaction between mental disorder and childhood trauma on violent victimisation existed.

Conclusions

The current study shows that members of the general population with mental disorders are at increased risk of future victimisation. However, the associations with violent and psychological victimisation vary considerably across specific disorders. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of violent and psychological victimisation in individuals with these mental disorders – especially those with alcohol dependence – and individuals with a history of childhood trauma. Violence prevention programmes should be developed for people at risk. These programmes should not only address violent victimisation, but also psychological victimisation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Mental disorders and the risk of adult violent and psychological victimisation: a prospective, population-based study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Mental disorders and the risk of adult violent and psychological victimisation: a prospective, population-based study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Mental disorders and the risk of adult violent and psychological victimisation: a prospective, population-based study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the same Creative Commons licence is included and the original work is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: C. Christ, E-mail: c.christ@ggzingeest.nl

References

Hide All
Acierno, R, Resnick, H, Kilpatrick, DG, Saunders, B and Best, CL (1999) Risk factors for rape, physical assault, and posttraumatic stress disorder in women: examination of differential multivariate relationships. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 13, 541563.
Ahlbom, A and Alfredsson, L (2005) Interaction: a word with two meanings creates confusion. European Journal of Epidemiology 20, 563564.
Barrios, YV, Gelaye, B, Zhong, Q, Nicolaidis, C, Rondon, MB, Garcia, PJ, Sanchez, PAM, Sanchez, SE and Williams, MA (2015) Association of childhood physical and sexual abuse with intimate partner violence, poor general health and depressive symptoms among pregnant women. PLoS ONE 10, e0116609.
Bora, E and Zorlu, N (2017) Social cognition in alcohol use disorder: a meta-analysis. Addiction 112, 4048.
Brendgen, M and Poulin, F (2018) Continued bullying victimization from childhood to young adulthood: a longitudinal study of mediating and protective factors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 46, 2739.
Carlisi, CO and Robinson, OJ (2018) The role of prefrontal–subcortical circuitry in negative bias in anxiety: translational, developmental and treatment perspectives. Brain and Neuroscience Advances 2, 112.
Choe, JY, Teplin, LA and Abram, KM (2008) Perpetration of violence, violent victimization, and severe mental illness: balancing public health concerns. Psychiatric Services 59, 153164.
Christ, C, De Waal, MM, Van Schaik, DJF, Kikkert, MJ, Blankers, M, Bockting, CLH, Beekman, ATF and Dekker, JJM (2018) Prevention of violent revictimization in depressed patients with an add-on internet-based emotion regulation training (iERT): study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry 18, 29.
Combs-Lane, AM and Smith, DW (2002) Risk of sexual victimization in college women: the role of behavioral intentions and risk-taking behaviors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 17, 165183.
De Graaf, R, Ten Have, M and Van Dorsselaer, S (2010) The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2): design and methods. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 19, 125141.
De Graaf, R, Van Dorsselaer, S, Tuithof, M and Ten Have, M (2013) Sociodemographic and psychiatric predictors of attrition in a prospective psychiatric epidemiological study among the general population. Result of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2. Comprehensive Psychiatry 54, 11311139.
De Waal, MM, Kikkert, MJ, Blankers, M, Dekker, JJ and Goudriaan, AE (2015) Self-wise, other-wise, streetwise (SOS) training: a novel intervention to reduce victimization in dual diagnosis psychiatric patients with substance use disorders: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry 15, 267.
De Waal, MM, Christ, C, Dekker, JJ, Kikkert, MJ, Lommerse, NM, Van Den Brink, W and Goudriaan, AE (2018) Factors associated with victimization in dual diagnosis patients. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 84, 6877.
Dean, K, Moran, P, Fahy, T, Tyrer, P, Leese, M, Creed, F, Burns, T, Murray, R and Walsh, E (2007) Predictors of violent victimization amongst those with psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116, 345353.
Dworkin, ER, Menon, SV, Bystrynski, J and Allen, NE (2017) Sexual assault victimization and psychopathology: a review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 56, 6581.
Ehring, T, Fischer, S, Schnuelle, J, Boesterling, A and Tuschen-Caffier, B (2008) Characteristics of emotion regulation in recovered depressed versus never depressed individuals. Personality and Individual Differences 15741584.
Elbogen, EB and Johnson, SC (2009) The intricate link between violence and mental disorder: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 152161.
Fazel, S, Lichtenstein, P, Grann, M, Goodwin, GM and Långström, N (2010) Bipolar disorder and violent crime: new evidence from population-based longitudinal studies and systematic review. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 931938.
Fazel, S, Wolf, A, Chang, Z, Larsson, H, Goodwin, GM and Lichtenstein, P (2015) Depression and violence: a Swedish population study. The Lancet Psychiatry 2, 224232.
Fink, LA, Bernstein, D, Handelsman, L, Foote, J and Lovejoy, M (1995) Initial reliability and validity of the childhood trauma interview: a new multidimensional measure of childhood interpersonal trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry 152, 13291335.
Friborg, O, Emaus, N, Rosenvinge, JH, Bilden, U, Olsen, JA and Pettersen, G (2015) Violence affects physical and mental health differently: the general population based Tromsø study. PLoS ONE 10, e0136588.
Gidycz, CA, Hanson, K and Layman, MJ (1995) A prospective analysis of the relationships among sexual assault experiences an extension of previous findings. Psychology of Women Quarterly 19, 529.
Glaser, D (2002) Emotional abuse and neglect (psychological maltreatment): a conceptual framework. Child Abuse and Neglect 26, 697714.
Goodman, LA, Thompson, KM, Weinfurt, K, Corl, S, Acker, P, Mueser, KT and Rosenberg, SD (1999) Reliability of reports of violent victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder among men and women with serious mental illness. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies 12, 587599.
Goodman, LA, Salyers, MP, Mueser, KT, Rosenberg, SD, Swartz, M, Essock, SM, Osher, FC, Butterfield, MI and Swanson, J (2001) Recent victimization in women and men with severe mental illness: prevalence and correlates. Journal of Traumatic Stress 14, 615632.
Hardt, J and Rutter, M (2004) Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: review of the evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45, 260273.
Haro, JM, Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S, Brugha, TS, De Girolamo, G, Guyer, ME, Jin, R, Lepine, JP, Mazzi, F, Reneses, B and Vilagut, G (2006) Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 15, 167180.
Hart, C, De Vet, R, Moran, P, Hatch, SL and Dean, K (2012) A UK population-based study of the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47, 15811590.
Honings, S, Drukker, M, Ten Have, M, De Graaf, R, Van Dorsselaer, S and Van Os, J (2017) The interplay of psychosis and victimisation across the life course: a prospective study in the general population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 52, 13631374.
Honkonen, T, Henriksson, M, Koivisto, AM, Stengard, E and Salokangas, RK (2004) Violent victimization in schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 39, 606612.
Hosmer, DW and Lemeshow, S (1992) Confidence interval estimation of interaction. Epidemiology 452456.
Hovens, JG, Wiersma, JE, Giltay, EJ, Van Oppen, P, Spinhoven, P, Penninx, BW and Zitman, FG (2010) Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. Controls. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 122, 6674.
Jorm, AF, Reavley, NJ and Ross, AM (2012) Belief in the dangerousness of people with mental disorders: a review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 46, 10291045.
Kamperman, AM, Henrichs, J, Bogaerts, S, Lesaffre, EM, Wierdsma, AI, Ghauharali, RR, Swildens, W, Nijssen, Y, Van Der Gaag, M, Theunissen, JR, Delespaul, PA, Van, WJ, Van Busschbach, JT, Kroon, H, Teplin, LA, Van De Mheen, D and Mulder, CL (2014) Criminal victimisation in people with severe mental illness: a multi-site prevalence and incidence survey in the Netherlands. PLoS ONE 9, e91029.
Kessler, RC and Üstün, TB (2004) The world mental health (WMH) survey initiative version of the world health organization (WHO) composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13, 93121.
Kessler, RC, Davis, CG and Kendler, KS (1997) Childhood adversity and adult psychiatric disorder in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Psychological Medicine 27, 11011119.
Kessler, RC, Molnar, BE, Feurer, ID and Appelbaum, M (2001) Patterns and mental health predictors of domestic violence in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 24, 487508.
Khalifeh, H, Oram, S, Osborn, D, Howard, LM and Johnson, S (2016) Recent physical and sexual violence against adults with severe mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Review of Psychiatry 28, 433451.
Kornreich, C, Philippot, P, Foisy, M-L, Blairy, S, Raynaud, E, Dan, B, Hess, U, Noël, X, Pelc, I and Verbanck, P (2002) Impaired emotional facial expression recognition is associated with interpersonal problems in alcoholism. Alcohol and Alcoholism 37, 394400.
Krahé, B and Berger, A (2017) Longitudinal pathways of sexual victimization, sexual self-esteem, and depression in women and men. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy 9, 147.
Lam, JA and Rosenheck, R (1998) The effect of victimization on clinical outcomes of homeless persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services 49, 678683.
Le Berre, AP, Fama, R and Sullivan, EV (2017) Executive functions, memory, and social cognitive deficits and recovery in chronic alcoholism: a critical review to inform future research. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 41, 14321443.
Lynch, JP (2006) Problems and promise of victimization surveys for cross-national research. Crime and Justice 34, 229287.
Maniglio, R (2009) Severe mental illness and criminal victimization: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 119, 180191.
Maoz, K, Eldar, S, Stoddard, J, Pine, DS, Leibenluft, E and Bar-Haim, Y (2016) Angry-happy interpretations of ambiguous faces in social anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Research 241, 122127.
Mathews, A and Macleod, C (2005) Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1, 167195.
McLaughlin, KA, Conron, KJ, Koenen, KC and Gilman, SE (2010) Childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and risk of past-year psychiatric disorder: a test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a population-based sample of adults. Psychological Medicine 40, 16471658.
Meijwaard, SC, Kikkert, M, De Mooij, LD, Lommerse, NM, Peen, J, Schoevers, RA, Van, R, De, WW, Bockting, CL and Dekker, JJ (2015) Risk of criminal victimisation in outpatients with common mental health disorders. PLoS ONE 10, e0128508.
Messman-Moore, TL and Long, PJ (2003) The role of childhood sexual abuse sequelae in the sexual revictimization of women: an empirical review and theoretical reformulation. Clinical Psychology Review 23, 537571.
Messman-Moore, TL, Coates, AA, Gaffey, KJ and Johnson, CF (2008) Sexuality, substance use, and susceptibility to victimization: risk for rape and sexual coercion in a prospective study of college women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 23, 17301746.
Messman-Moore, TL, Ward, RM and Zerubavel, N (2013) The role of substance use and emotion dysregulation in predicting risk for incapacitated sexual revictimization in women: results of a prospective investigation. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 27, 125132.
Miethe, TD and Mcdowall, D (1993) Contextual effects in models of criminal victimization. Social Forces 71, 741759.
Miller, E, Breslau, J, Petukhova, M, Fayyad, J, Green, JG, Kola, L, Seedat, S, Stein, DJ, Tsang, A and Viana, MC (2011) Premarital mental disorders and physical violence in marriage: cross-national study of married couples. British Journal of Psychiatry 199, 330337.
Nelson, J, Klumparendt, A, Doebler, P and Ehring, T (2017) Childhood maltreatment and characteristics of adult depression: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 210, 96104.
Oscar-Berman, M, Valmas, MM, Sawyer, KS, Ruiz, SM, Luhar, RB and Gravitz, ZR (2014) Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism. In Handbook of Clinical Neurology. New York: Elsevier, pp. 183210.
Paivio, SC (2001) Stability of retrospective self-reports of child abuse and neglect before and after therapy for child abuse issues. Child Abuse and Neglect 25, 10531068.
Pulay, AJ, Dawson, DA, Hasin, DS, Goldstein, RB, Ruan, MMWJ, Pickering, MRP, Huang, B, Chou, SP and Grant, BF (2008) Violent behavior and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69, 12.
Resnick, HS, Acierno, R and Kilpatrick, DG (1997) Health impact of interpersonal violence. 2: medical and mental health outcomes. Behavioral Medicine 23, 6578.
Robinson, F and Keithley, J (2000) The impacts of crime on health and health services: a literature review. Health, Risk & Society 2, 253266.
Roodman, AA and Clum, GA (2001) Revictimization rates and method variance: a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 21, 183204.
Rothman, KJ 2012. Epidemiology: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Saris, I, Aghajani, M, Van Der Werff, S, Van Der Wee, N and Penninx, B (2017) Social functioning in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 136, 352361.
Shapero, BG, Hamilton, JL, Liu, RT, Abramson, LY and Alloy, LB (2013) Internalizing symptoms and rumination: the prospective prediction of familial and peer emotional victimization experiences during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence 36, 10671076.
Silver, E, Arseneault, L, Langley, J, Caspi, A and Moffitt, TE (2005) Mental disorder and violent victimization in a total birth cohort. American Journal of Public Health 95, 20152021.
Skinner, CJ, Holt, D and Smith, TF (1989) Analysis of complex Surveys. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Stevens, A, Berto, D, Frick, U, Kerschl, V, Mcsweeny, T, Schaaf, S, Tartari, M, Turnbull, P, Trinkl, B, Uchtenhagen, A, Waidner, G and Werdenich, A (2007) The victimization of dependent drug users: findings from a European study, UK. European Journal of Criminology 4, 385408.
Straus, MA, Hamby, SL, Boney-Mccoy, S and Sugarman, DB (1996) The revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues 17, 283316.
Strøm, IF, Kristian Hjemdal, O, Myhre, MC, Wentzel-Larsen, T and Thoresen, S (2017) The social context of violence: a study of repeated victimization in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. doi: 10.1177/0886260517696867.
Ten Have, M, Vollebergh, W, Bijl, R and Ormel, J (2002) Combined effect of mental disorder and low social support on care service use for mental health problems in the Dutch general population. Psychological Medicine 32, 311323.
Ten Have, M, De Graaf, R, Van Weeghel, J and Van Dorsselaer, S (2014) The association between common mental disorders and violence: to what extent is it influenced by prior victimization, negative life events and low levels of social support? Psychological Medicine 44, 14851498.
Teplin, LA, Mcclelland, GM, Abram, KM and Weiner, DA (2005) Crime victimization in adults with severe mental illness: comparison with the national crime victimization survey. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 911921.
Testa, M and Livingston, JA (2009) Alcohol consumption and women's vulnerability to sexual victimization: can reducing women's drinking prevent rape? Substance Use and Misuse 44, 13491376.
Torrey, EF (2011) Stigma and violence: isn't it time to connect the dots? Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 892896.
Tuithof, M, Ten Have, M, Van Den Brink, W, Vollebergh, W and De Graaf, R (2012) The role of conduct disorder in the association between ADHD and alcohol use (disorder). Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 123, 115121.
Ullman, SE, Najdowski, CJ and Filipas, HH (2009) Child sexual abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use: predictors of revictimization in adult sexual assault survivors. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 18, 367385.
Van Dijk, JJM, Van Kesteren, JJ and Smit, P (2008) Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective, Key Findings From the 2004–2005 ICVS and EU ICS. Den Haag: Boom Juridische Uitgevers.
Walsh, E, Moran, P, Scott, C, Mckenzie, K, Burns, T, Creed, F, Tyrer, P, Murray, RM and Fahy, T (2003) Prevalence of violent victimisation in severe mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 183, 233238.
Werner, KB, Mccutcheon, VV, Challa, M, Agrawal, A, Lynskey, MT, Conroy, E, Statham, DJ, Madden, P, Henders, AK and Todorov, A (2016) The association between childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and adult sexual victimization in men and women: results from three independent samples. Psychological Medicine 46, 563573.
Widom, CS, Dumont, K and Czaja, SJ (2007) A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 4956.
Wittebrood, K (2006) Slachtoffers van Criminaliteit. Den Haag: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.
Xu, Y, Olfson, M, Villegas, L, Okuda, M, Wang, S, Liu, S-M and Blanco, C (2013) A characterization of adult victims of sexual violence: results from the national epidemiological survey for alcohol and related conditions. Psychiatry 76, 223240.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Christ et al. supplementary material
Tables S1-S2

 Word (30 KB)
30 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed