Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-77ffc5d9c7-6klxd Total loading time: 1.446 Render date: 2021-04-22T18:55:15.484Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: biological correlations and therapeutic strategies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 October 2011

Riccardo Torta
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Torino, Torino
Angela Scalabrino
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Torino, Torino
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Image of the first page of this article. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.
Type
Editorials
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2002

References

Ariyo, A.A., Haan, M. & Tangen, C.M. (2000). Depressive symptoms and coronary heart disease and mortality in elderly americans. Circulation 102, 17731779.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bezchlibnyk-Butler, K. & Jeffries, J.J. (1996). Clinical Handbook of Psychotropic Drugs, 5th ed. revised. Hogrefe & Huber: Toronto.Google Scholar
Bigger, J.T., Fleiss, J.L., Steinman, R.C., Rolnitzky, L.M., Kleiger, R.E. & Rottman, J.N. (1992). Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation 85 164171.Google Scholar
Biggio, G. (2000). L'ansia nelle patologie neurologiche: dal sintomo alia sindrome. In XV Corso di Aggiornamento della Societa Italiana di Neurologia. Milano.Google Scholar
Cardiac Arrhytmia Suppression Trial II (CAST II) Investigators (1992). Effects of the antiarrhytmic agent moricizine on survival after myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 227233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carney, R.M., Rich, M.W., teVelde, A.J., Saini, J., Clark, K. & Jaffe, A.S. (1987). Major depressive disorders in coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 60, 273275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carney, R.M., Rich, M.W., Freedland, K.E., Saini, J., teVelde, A., Simeone, C. & Clark, K. (1988). Major depressive disorder predicts cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease. Psychosomatic Medicine 50, 627633.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carney, R.M., Freedland, K.E., Rich, M.W., Smith, L.J. & Jaffe, A.S. (1993). Ventricular tachycardia and psychiatric depression in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Medicine 95, 2328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Camey, R.M., Freedland, K.E., Sheline, Y.I. & Weiss, E.S. (1997). Depression and coronary heart disease: a rewiew for cardiologists. Clinical Cardiology 20, 196200.Google Scholar
Carney, R.M., Freedland, K.E., Veith, R.C., Cryer, P.E., Skala, J.A., Lynch, T. & Jaffe, A.S. (1999). Major depression, heart rate and plasma norepinephrine in patients with coronary heart disease. Biological Psychiatry 45 (4), 458–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cassem, E.H. (1995). Depressive disorders in the medically ill. An overview. Psychosomatics 36, 210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cay, E.L. & O'Rourke, A. (1991). The emotional state of patients after coronary by pass surgery. In Abstracts of International Symposium “Quality of life after open heart surgery”. Anversa, Duman R.S., Heninger, G.R. & Nestler, E.J. (1997). A molecular and cellular theory of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 54 (7), 597606.Google Scholar
Evans, D.L., Staab, J.P. & Petitto, J.M. (1999). Depression in medical setting: biopsychological interactions and treatment considerations. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Suppl. No. 4, vol. 60, pp. 4055.Google ScholarPubMed
Finkel, M.S., Laghrissi-Thode, F., Pollock, B.G. & Rong, J. (1996a). Paroxetine is a novel nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Psychopharmacological Bulletin 32 (4), 653658.Google ScholarPubMed
Finkel, S.M., Gaffey, A. & Laghrissi-Thode, F. (1996b). Randomized trial of antidepressants in patients with ischemic heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Suppl. A, vol. 27, p. 186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford, D.E., Mead, L.A., Chang, P.P., Cooper-Patrick, L., Wang, N.Y. & Klag, M.J. (1998). Depression is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in men: the precursor study. Archives of Internal Medicine 158 (13), 14221426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frasure, Smith N., Lesperance, F. & Talajic, M. (1993). Depression following myocardial infarction. Impact on 6-month survival. Journal of the American Medical Association 270, 18191825.Google Scholar
Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F. & Talajic, M. (1995). Depression and 18-month prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation 91, 9991005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F., Gravel, G., Masson, A., Juneau, M., Talajic, M. & Bourassa, M.G. (2000). Depression and health-care costs during the first year following myocardial infarction. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 48 (4-5), 471478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glassman, A.H. & Roose, S.P. (1994). Antidepressant choice in the patient with cardiac disease: lesson from the cardiac arrhytmia suppression trial (CAST) studies. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 18, 6165.Google Scholar
Glassman, A.H. & Shapiro, P.A. (1998). Depression and the course of coronary artery disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 155, 411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glassman, A.H., Rodriguez, A.I. & Shapiro, P.A. (1998). The use of antidepressant drugs in patients with heart disease. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Suppl. No. 10, vol. 59, pp. 1621.Google ScholarPubMed
Goodnick, P.J. & Goldstein, B.J. (1998). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in affective disorders – I. Basic Pharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology 12, 520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodnick, P.J. & Hernandez, M. (2000). Treatment of depression in comorbid medical illness. Expert Opinion on Pliarmacotherapy 1 (7), 13671384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gruen, R.J., Ehrlich, J. & Silva, R. (2000). Cognitive factors and stressinduced changes in catecholamine biochemistry. Psychiatry Research 93, 5561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guck, T.P., Kavan, M.G., Elsasser, G.N. & Barone, E.J. (2001). Assessment and treatment of depression following myocardial infarction. American Family Physician 64 (4), 573.Google ScholarPubMed
Hance, M., Carney, R.M., Freedland, K.E. & Skala, J. (1996). Depression in patients with coronary artery disease. General Hospital of Psychiatry 18, 6165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hippisley-Cox, J., Fielding, K. & Pringle, M. (1998). Depression as a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease in men: population based case-control study. British Medical Journal 316 (7146), 17141719.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasper, S. (1997). Efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of severe depression: the place of mirtazapine. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 17, 1928.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katona, C, Bercoff, E, Chiu, E., Tack, P., Versiani, M. & Woelk, H. (1999). Reboxetine versus imipramine in the treatment of elderly patients with depressive disorders: a double-blind randomized trial. Journal of Affective Disorders 55 (2-3), 203213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleiger, R.E., Miller, J.P., Bigger, T, Moss, A.J. & the Multicenter Post- infarction Research Group (1987). Decreased heart rate variability and its association with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 59, 256262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kop, W.J., Verdino, R.J., Gottfiener, J.S., O'Leary, S.T., Bairey, Merz C.N. & Krantz, D.S. (2001). Changes in heart rate and heart rate variability before ambulatory ischemic events (1). Journal of the American College of Cardiology 38 (3), 742749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krittayaphong, R., Cascio, W.E., Light, K.C., Sheffield, D., Golden, R.N., Finkel, J.B., Glekas, G., Koch, G.G. & Sheps, D.S. (1997). Heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease: differences in patients with higher and lower depression scores. Psychosomatic Medicine 59, 3, 231235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ladwig, K.H., Roll, G., Breithardt, G., Budde, T. & Borggrefe, M. (1994). Post-infarction depression and incomplete recovery 6 months after acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 343, 2023.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laghrissi-Thode, F., Wagner, W.R., Pollock, B.G., Johnson, P.C. & Finkel, M.S. (1997). Elevated platelet factor 4 and beta-tomboglobulin plasma level in depressed patients with ischemic heart disease. Biological Psychiatry 42, 290295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lesperance, F., Frasure-Smith, N., Juneau, M. & Theroux, P. (2000). Depression and 1-year prognosis in unstable angina. Archives of Internal Medicine 160, 13541360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Licinio, J. & Wong, M.L. (1999). The role of inflammatory mediators in the biology of major depression: central nervous system cytokines modulate the biological substrate of depressive symptoms, regulate stress-responsive systems and contribute to neurotoxicity and neuroprotection. Molecular Psychiatry 4, 317327.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Markovitz, J.K. (1998). Hostility is associated with increased platelet activation in coronary heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine 60 (5), 586591.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Markovitz, J.K., Tolbert, L. & Winders, S.E. (1999). Increased serotonin receptor density and platelet GPIIb/IIIA activation among smokers. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 19, 762766.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mayou, R. A., Gill, D. & Thompson, D.R. (2000). Depression and anxiety as predictors of outcome after myocardial infarction. Psychosomatic Medicine 62, 212219.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McFarlane, A., Kamath, M.V., Fallen, E.L., Malcon, V., Cherian, F. & Norman, G. (2001). Effects of sertraline on the recovery rate of cardiac autonomic function in depressed patients after acute myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal 142 (4), 617623.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milne, R.J. & Goa, K. (1991). Citalopram: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutical potential in depressive illness. Drugs 41, 450477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moeller, M. (1983). Mianserin: cardiovascular effects in elderly patients. Psychopharmacology 80, 174177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Musselman, D.L., Tomer, A., Manatunga, A.K., Knight, B.T., Porter, M.R., Kasey, S., Marzec, U., Harker, L.A. & Nemeroff, C.B. (1996). Exaggerated platelet reactivity in major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 153, 13131317.Google ScholarPubMed
Musselman, D.L., Evans, D.L. & Nemeroff, C.B. (1998). The relationship of depression to cardiovascular disease: epidemiology, biology and treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 55 (7), 580592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Musselman, D.L., Marzec, U.M., Manatunga, A., Penna, S., Reemsnyder, A., Knight, B.T., Baron, A., Hanson, S.R. & Nemeroff, C.B. (2000). Platelet reactivity in depressed patients treated with paroxetine: preliminary findings. Archives of General Psychiatry 57 (9), 875882.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muth, E.A., Haskins, J.T., Moyer, J.A., Husbands, G.E.M., Nielsen, S.T. & Sigg, E.B. (1986). Antidepressant biochemical profile of the novel bicyclic compaund WY-45.030, an ethylcyclohexanol derivative. Biochemical Pliarmacology 56, 574579.Google Scholar
Nemeroff, C.B. & Musselman, D.L. (2000). Are platelets the link between depression and ischemic heart disease? American Heart Journal, Suppl. No. 4, vol. 140, pp. 5762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nemeroff, C.B., DeVane, C.L. & Pollock, B.G. (1996). Newer antidepressants and the cithocrome P450 system. American Journal of Psychiatry 153,311320.Google ScholarPubMed
Nemeroff, C.B., Musselman, D.L. & Evans, D.L. (1998). Depression and cardiac disease. Depression and Anxiety, Suppl. No. 1, vol. 8, pp. 7179.3.0.CO;2-X>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Penninx, B.W., Beekman, A.T., Honig, A., Deeg, D.J., Schoevers, R.A., van Eijk, J.T. & van Tilburg, W. (2001). Depression and cardiac mortality. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 221227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perski, A., Feleke, E., Anderson, G., Samad, B.A., Westerlund, H., Ericsson, C.G. & Rehnqvist, N. (1998). Emotional distress before coronary bypass grafting limits the benefit of surgery. American Heart Journal 136 (3), 510517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Personne, M., Sjoberg, G. & Persson, H. (1997). Citalopram overdose: review of cases treated in Swedish hospitals. Clinical Toxicology 35, 237240.Google ScholarPubMed
Pollock, B.G., Laghrissi-Thode, F. & Wagner, W.R. (1995). Increased PF4 and beta-TG in depressed patients with ischemic heart disease. In Abstracts of the 34th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopliarmacology. San Juan, Puerto Rico, p. 121.Google Scholar
Pollock, B.G., Laghrissi-Thode, F. & Wagner, W.R. (2000). Evaluation of platelet activation in depressed patients with ischemic heart disease after paroxetine or nortiptiline treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychopliarmacology 20 (2), 137140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Preskorn, S.H. (1993a). Recent pharmacological advances in antidepressant therapy for the elderly. American Journal of Medicine 94, 212.Google Scholar
Preskorn, S.H. (1993b). Pharmacocinetics of antidepressant: why and how they are relevant to treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 54, H34.Google Scholar
Rasmussen, S.L., Overo, K.F. & Tanghoj, P. (1999). Cardiac safety of citalopram: prospective trials and retrospective analyses. Journal of Clinical Psychopliarmacology 19 (5), 407415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rechlin, T. (1995). Effects of psychopharmacologic therapy on heart rate variation. Nervenarzt 66 (9), 678685.Google ScholarPubMed
Roose, S.P. & Dalack, G.W. (1992). Treating the depressed patients with cardiovascular problems. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Suppl. No. 9, vol. 53, pp. 2531.Google ScholarPubMed
Roose, S.P. & Spatz, E. (1999). Treating depression in patients with ischaemic heart disease: which agents are best to use and to avoid? Drug Safety 20, 459465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roose, S.P., Dalack, G.W. & Woodring, S. (1991). Death, depression and heart disease. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Suppl. No. 6, vol. 52, pp. 3439.Google ScholarPubMed
Roose, S.P., Glassman, A.H. & Woodring, S. (1995). Can antidepressant be used in patients with serious heart disease? In Abstract of the 8th Congress of the European College of Neuropsychophar-macology, Venice.Google Scholar
Roose, S.P., Glassman, A.H. & Attia, E. (1998). Fluoxetine safety in patients with heart disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, Suppl. No. 10, vol. 59, pp. 48.Google Scholar
Roose, S.P., Devanand, D. & Suthers, K. (1999). Depression: treating the patients with comorbid cardiac disease. Geriatrics 54, 20-21, 25-26, 2931.Google ScholarPubMed
Salonen, J.T., Julkunen, J., Kaplan, G.A., Kauhanen, J. & Salonen, R. (1995). Anger, hostility and progression of artheriosclerotic disease. In Abstract of the VHIth Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Venice.Google Scholar
Schartz, P.J., La Rovere, M.T. & Vanoli, E. (1992). Autonomic nervous system and sudden cardiac death: experimental basis and clinical observation for post-myocardial infarction risk stratification. Circulation, Suppl. No. I, vol. 85, pp. 177191.Google Scholar
Schleifer, S.J., Macari-Hinson, M.W. & Coyle, D.A. (1989). The nature and course of depression following myocardial infarction. Archives of Internal Medicine 149, 17851789.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shapiro, P.A. (1996). Psychiatric aspects of cardiovascular disease. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 19 (3), 613629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shapiro, P.A., Lesperance, F. & Frasure-Smith, N. (1999). An open label preliminary trial of sertraline for treatment of major depression after acute myocardial infarction (the SADHAT Trial). Sertraline antidepressant Heart Attack Trial. American Heart Journal 137 (6), 11001106.Google Scholar
Sheline, Y.I., Freedland, K.E. & Carney, R.M. (1997). How safe are serotonin reuptake inhibitors for depression in patients with coronary artery disease? American Journal of Medicine 102 (1), 5459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sloan, R.P., Shapiro, P.A. & Bagiella, E. (1999). Cardiac autonomic control buffers blood pressure variability responses to challenge: a psychophysiologic model of coronary artery disease. Psychosomatic Medicine 61, 5868.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stem, J.J., Pascale, L. & Ackerman, A. (1977). Life adjustment post myocardial infarction: determining predictive variables. Archives of Internal Medicine 137, 16801685.Google Scholar
Strik, J.J., Honig, A., Lousberg, R., Cheriex, E.C., Tuynman-Qua, H.G., Kuijpers, P.M., Wellens, H.J. & Van Praag, H.M. (2000). Efficacy and safety of fluoxetine in the treatment of patients with major depression after first myocardial infarction: findings from a doubleblind, placebo controlled trial. Psychosomatic Medicine 62 (6), 783789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (1996). Heart rate variability. Standard of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Circulation 9, 10431065.Google Scholar
Torta, R. (in press). La depressione nella comorbilita neurologica e cardiovascolare. Facts News and Views.Google Scholar
Torta, R. & Berra, C. (2000). La farmacodinamica degli SSRI: dalla selettivita alia complessita d'azione recettoriale. Facts News and Views (SINPF), Suppl. No. 1, vol. 2, pp. 912.Google Scholar
Torta, R. & Monaco, F. (2001). Depressione e Stroke. UTET: Torino.Google Scholar
Torta, R., Pinna, Pintor P, Alfieri, O., Giammaria, M., Borio, R., Cicolin, A., Ravizza, L., Bartolozzi, S., Caruzzo, E., Mariani, F., Ravarino, G. & Triumbari, F. (1992). Clinical outcome and emotional-behavioural status after isolated coronary surgery. Quality of Life Research 1 (3), 177185.Google Scholar
Torta, R., Borio, R., Varetto, A. & Pinna Pintor, P. (1993). Profilo emozionale nel paziente anziano dopo BPAC: considerazioni sui parametri ansia, depressione e qualita della vita. In Atti del HI Congresso Nazionale della Societa Italiana di CardioNeurologia, Prevenzione Cardiovascolare, vol. 2, pp. 1718. Ediesse: Pavia.Google Scholar
Torta, R., Pinna Pintor, P., Cicolin, A., Giammaria, M., Bartolozzi, S., Bobbio, M. & Alfieri, O. (1997). Quality of life after coronary artery bypass surgery. Journal of Heart Failure 4(1), 78.Google Scholar
Torta, R., Scalabrino, A. & Borio, R. (1998). Amisulpride e patologia cardiovascolare. Giornale Italiano di Psicopatologia, Suppl. No. 1 vol. 4, p. 107.Google Scholar
Torta, R., Berra, C, Ambrosino, A. & Scalabrino, A. (2001). Therapeutic aspects of depression in the erderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Suppl. No. 7, pp. 401412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Travella, J.I., Forrester, A.W., Schultz, S.K. & Robinson, R.G. (1994). Depression following myocardial infarction: a one year longitudinal study. Internal Journal of Psychiatry Medicine, Suppl. No. 4, vol. 24, pp. 357369.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulen, J.K., Bruijn, J.A., de Man, K.J., Pepplinkhuizen, L., van den Meiracker, A.H. & Man in't Veld, A.J. (1996). Cardiovascular variability in major depressive disorder and effects of imipramine or mirtazapine (Org 3770). Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (2), 135145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ungvari, Z., Pacher, P., Kecskemeti, V. & Roller, A. (1999). Fluoxetine dilates isolated small cerebral arteries of rats and attenuates constrictions to serotonin, norepinephin and a voltage-dipendent Ca (2+) channel opener. Stroke 30 (9), 19491954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Upward, J.W., Edwards, J.G., Goldie, A. & Waller, D.G. (1988). Comparative effects of fluoxetine and amitriptyline on cardiac function. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26, 399402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vampini, C. & Bellantuono, C. (1998). Cardiopatia ischemica e depressione: aspetti epidemiologici, fisiopatologici e terapeutici. Rivista di Psichiatria 33 (4), 17.Google Scholar
Wells, K.B., Rogers, W., Burnam, M.A. & Camp, P. (1993). Course of depression in patients with hypertension, myocardial infarction, or insulin-dependent diabetes. American Journal of Psychiatry 150, 632638.Google ScholarPubMed
Wishnie, H.A., Hackett, T.P. & Cassem, N.H. (1971). Psychological hazard of convalescence following myocardial infarction. Journal of the American Medical Association 215, 12921296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization (1996). Dysthymia in Neurological Disorders. WHO: Geneva.Google Scholar
Yap, K.B. & Low, S.T. (1999). Interaction of fluvoxamine with warfarin in an elderly woman. Singapore Medicine Journal 40 (7), 480482.Google Scholar
Yeragani, V.K., Pohl, R. & Jampala, V.C. (2000). Increased QT variability in patients with panic disorder and depression. Psychiatric Research 93, 225235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 495 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

You have Access

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: biological correlations and therapeutic strategies
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: biological correlations and therapeutic strategies
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: biological correlations and therapeutic strategies
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *