Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale across 11 world-wide societies

  • D. Stevanovic (a1), Z. Bagheri (a2), O. Atilola (a3), P. Vostanis (a4), D. Stupar (a1), P. Moreira (a5), T. Franic (a6), N. Davidovic (a6), R. Knez (a7), A. Nikšić (a8), K. Dodig-Ćurković (a9), M. Avicenna (a10), I. Multazam Noor (a11), L. Nussbaum (a12), A. Deljkovic (a13), A. Aziz Thabet (a14), P. Petrov (a15), D. Ubalde (a16), L. A. Monteiro (a17) and R. Ribas (a18)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Abstract

Background.

In order to compare estimates by one assessment scale across various cultures/ethnic groups, an important aspect that needs to be demonstrated is that its construct across these groups is invariant when measured using a similar and simultaneous approach (i.e., demonstrated cross-cultural measurement invariance). One of the methods for evaluating measurement invariance is testing for differential item functioning (DIF), which assesses whether different groups respond differently to particular items. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) in societies with different socioeconomic, cultural, and religious backgrounds.

Methods.

The study was organised by the International Child Mental Health Study Group. Self-reported data were collected from adolescents residing in 11 countries: Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Indonesia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Palestinian Territories, the Philippines, Portugal, Romania and Serbia. The multiple-indicators multiple-causes model was used to test the RCADS items for DIF across the countries.

Results.

Ten items exhibited DIF considering all cross-country comparisons. Only one or two items were flagged with DIF in the head-to-head comparisons, while there were three to five items flagged with DIF, when one country was compared with the others. Even with all cross-culturally non-invariant items removed from nine language versions tested, the original factor model representing six anxiety and depressive symptoms subscales was not significantly violated.

Conclusions.

There is clear evidence that relatively small number of the RCADS items is non-invariant, especially when comparing two different cultural/ethnic groups, which indicates on its sound cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparisons in adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: D. Stevanovic, Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth, Belgrade, Serbia. (Email: dejanstevanovic@eunet.rs)

Footnotes

Hide All

There was an error of omission in the title that has now been corrected and a notice has been published providing details.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Angold, A, Costello, EJ, Messer, SC, Pickles, A (1995). Development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 5, 237249.
Atilola, O, Balhara, YPS, Stevanovic, D, Avicenna, M, Kandemir, H (2013). Self-reported mental health problems among adolescents in developing countries: results from an international pilot sample. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics 34, 129137.
Bouvard, M, Denis, A, Roulin, JL (2015). The French version of the revised child anxiety and depression scale (RCADS) in a nonclinical sample. Swiss Journal of Psychology 74, 119127.
Boyce, W, Torsheim, T, Currie, C, Zambon, A (2006). The family affluence scale as a measure of national wealth: validation of an adolescent self-report measure. Social Indicators Research 78, 473487.
Brown, RC, Yaroslavsky, I, Quinoy, AM, Friedman, AD, Brookman, RR, Southam-Gerow, MA (2013). Factor structure of measures of anxiety and depression symptoms in African American youth. Child Psychiatry Human Development 44, 525536.
Brown, TA (2006). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. Guilford Press: New York, NY.
Bye, BV, Gallicchio, SJ, Dykacz, JM (1985). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models for a single latent variable with ordinal indicators. Sociological Methods Research 13, 487509.
Byrne, BM, Watkins, D (2003). The issue of measurement invariance revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 34, 155175.
Charman, T, Pervova, I (1996). Self-reported depressed mood in Russian and UK schoolchildren. A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 37, 879883.
Cheung, GW, Rensvold, RB (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling 9, 233255.
Chorpita, BF, Yim, L, Moffitt, C, Umemoto, LA, Francis, SE (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: a revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behavior Research and Therapy 38, 835855.
Chorpita, BF, Moffitt, CE, Gray, J (2005). Psychometric properties of the revised child anxiety and depression scale in a clinical sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy 43, 309322.
de Ross, RL, Gullone, E, Chorpita, BF (2002). The revised child anxiety and depression scale: a psychometric investigation with Australian youth. Behaviour Change 19, 90101.
Dimitrov, DM (2010). Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 43, 121149.
Ebesutani, C, Bernstein, A, Nakamura, BJ, Chorpita, BF, Weisz, JR, Research Network on Youth Mental Health (2010). A psychometric analysis of the revised child anxiety and depression scale – parent version in a clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 38, 249260.
Ebesutani, C, Chorpita, B, Higa-McMillan, C, Nakamura, B, Regan, J, Lynch, R (2011). A psychometric analysis of the revised child anxiety and depression scales – parent version in a school sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 39, 173185.
Esbjørn, BH, Sømhovd, MJ, Turnstedt, C, Reinholdt-Dunne, ML (2012). Assessing the revised child anxiety and depression scale (RCADS) in a national sample of Danish youth aged 8–16 years. PLoS ONE 7, e37339.
Essau, CA, Leung, PW, Conradt, J, Cheng, H, Wong, T (2008). Anxiety symptoms in Chinese and German adolescents: their relationship with early learning experiences, perfectionism, and learning motivation. Depression and Anxiety 25, 801810.
Essau, CA, Ishikawa, SI, Sasagawa, S, Sato, H, Okajima, I, Otsui, K, Georgiou, GA, O'Callaghan, J, Michie, F (2011). Anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England: their relationship with self-construals and social support. Depression and Anxiety 28, 509518.
Fan, X, Thompson, B, Wang, L (1999). Effects of sample size, estimation methods, and model specification on structural equation modeling fit indexes. Structural Equation Modeling 6, 5683.
Gregorich, SE (2006). Do self-report instruments allow meaningful comparisons across diverse population groups? Testing measurement invariance using the confirmatory factor analysis framework. Medical Care 44, S78S94.
He, J, van de Vijver, F (2012). Bias and equivalence in cross-cultural research. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture 2, 8.
Joreskog, KG, Goldberger, AS (1975). Estimation of a model with multiple indicators and multiple causes of a single latent variable. Journal of the American Statistical Association 70, 631639.
Kösters, MP, Chinapaw, MJ, Zwaanswijk, M, van der Wal, MF, Koot, HM (2015). Structure, reliability, and validity of the revised child anxiety and depression scale (RCADS) in a multi-ethnic urban sample of Dutch children. BMC Psychiatry 15, 1.
Latzman, RD, Naifeh, JA, Watson, D, Vaidya, JG, Heiden, LJ, Damon, JD, Hight, TL, Young, J (2011). Racial differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression among three cohorts of students in the southern United States. Psychiatry: Interpersonal Biological Processes 74, 332348.
March, JS, Parker, JDA, Sullivan, K, Stallings, P, Conners, K (1997). The multi-dimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC): factor structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 554565.
Mathyssek, CM, Olino, TM, Hartman, CA, Ormel, J, Verhulst, FC, Van Oort, FV (2013). Does the revised child anxiety and depression scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 22, 2735.
Milfont, TL, Fisher, R (2010). Testing measurement invariance across groups: applications for cross-cultural research. International Journal of Psychological Research 3, 111121.
Muthén, LK, Muthén, BO (1998–2010). Mplus User's Guide. 6th edn. Muthén & Muthén: Los Angeles, CA.
Ollendick, TH (1983). Reliability and validity of the revised fear survey schedule for children (FSSC-R). Behaviour Research and Therapy 21, 395399.
Ollendick, TH, Yang, B, King, NJ, Dong, Q, Akande, A (1996). Fears in American, Australian, Chinese, and Nigerian children and adolescents: a cross-cultural study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 37, 213220.
Park, AL, Ebesutani, CK, Bose, D, Chorpita, BF (2015). Psychometric properties of a Spanish translation of the revised child anxiety and depression scale–parent version. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 113. doi: 10.1007/s10862-015-9517-7.
Reynolds, CR, Richmond, BO (2000). Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale: Manual. Western Psychological Services: Los Angeles, CA.
Sandín, B, Valiente, RM, Chorot, P (2009). RCADS: evaluación de los síntomas de los trastornos de ansiedad y depresión en niñosy adolescentes. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica 14, 193206.
Stegmueller, D (2013). How many countries for multilevel modeling? A comparison of frequentist and Bayesian approaches. American Journal of Political Science 57, 748761.
Stevanovic, D, Urbán, R, Atilola, O, Vostanis, P, Singh Balhara, YP, Avicenna, M, Knez, R, Franic, T, Petrov, P (2014). Does the strengths and difficulties questionnaire–self report yield invariant measurements across different nations? Data from the International Child Mental Health Study Group. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 24, 323334.
Stevanovic, D, Jafari, P, Knez, R, Franic, T, Atilola, O, Davidovic, N, Bagheri, Z, Lakic, A (2016). Can we really use available scales for child and adolescent psychopathology across cultures? A systematic review of cross-cultural measurement invariance data. Transcultural Psychiatry, in press.
Stewart, SM, Kennard, BD, Lee, PW, Hughes, CW, Mayes, TL, Emslie, GJ, Lewinsohn, PM (2004). A cross-cultural investigation of cognitions and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 248.
Trent, LR, Buchanan, E, Ebesutani, C, Ale, CM, Heiden, L, Hight, TL, Damon, JD, Young, J (2012). A measurement invariance examination of the revised child anxiety and depression scale in a southern sample: differential item functioning between African American and Caucasian youth. Assessment 20, 175187.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Stevanovic supplementary material
Appendix 1

 Word (113 KB)
113 KB

Cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale across 11 world-wide societies

  • D. Stevanovic (a1), Z. Bagheri (a2), O. Atilola (a3), P. Vostanis (a4), D. Stupar (a1), P. Moreira (a5), T. Franic (a6), N. Davidovic (a6), R. Knez (a7), A. Nikšić (a8), K. Dodig-Ćurković (a9), M. Avicenna (a10), I. Multazam Noor (a11), L. Nussbaum (a12), A. Deljkovic (a13), A. Aziz Thabet (a14), P. Petrov (a15), D. Ubalde (a16), L. A. Monteiro (a17) and R. Ribas (a18)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

A correction has been issued for this article: