Skip to main content Accessibility help

Cannabis consumption and risk of developing schizophrenia: myth or reality?

  • Marta Di Forti and Robin McGregor Murray
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cannabis consumption and risk of developing schizophrenia: myth or reality?
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cannabis consumption and risk of developing schizophrenia: myth or reality?
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cannabis consumption and risk of developing schizophrenia: myth or reality?
      Available formats



Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Dr. M. Di Forti, Division of Psychological Medicine, PO63, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF(United Kingdom). Fax:+44-207-7019044 E.mail:


Hide All
Andrèasson, S., Allebeck, P., Engstrom, A. & Ryldberg, U. (1987). Cannabis and schizophrenia: A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Lancet 26, 14831486.
Arsencault, L., Cannon, M. & Poulton, R (2002). Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study. British Medical Journal 325, 12121213.
Arsenault, L., Cannon, M., Witton, J. & Murray, R.M. (2004). Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. British Journal of Psychiatry 184, 110117.
Ashton, H. (2002). Cannabis or health? Current Opinion Psychiatry 15, 247253.
Block, R.I., O'Leary, D.S., Hichwa, R.D., Augustinack, J.C., Boles Ponto, L.L., Ghoneim, M.M., Arndt, S., Hurtig, R.R., Watkins, G.L., Hall, J.A., Nathan, P.E. & Andreasen, N.C. (2002). Effects of frequent marijuana use on memory-related regional cerebral blood flow. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour 72, 237250.
Bunney, W.E. & Bunney, B.G. (2000). Evidence for a compromised dorsolateral prefrontal cortical parallel circuit in schizophrenia. Brain Research Reviews 31, 138146.
Caspi, A., Moffitt, E.T., Cannon, M., McClay, J., Murray, R., Harrington, H. L., Taylor, A., Arseneault, L., Williams, B., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R. & Craig, I.W. (2005). Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene: Longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry 57, 11171127.
D'Souza, D.C., Perry, E., MacDougall, L., Ammerman, Y., Cooper, T., Wu, Y.T., Braley, G., Gueorguieva, R. & Krystal, J.H. (2004). The psychotomimetic effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy individuals: implications for psychosis. Neuropsychophannacology 29(8), 15581572.
Egan, M.F., Goldberg, T.E., Kolachana, B.S., Callicott, J.H., Mazzianti, C.M., Straub, R.E., Goldman, D. & Weinberger, D.R. (2001) Effect of COMT val 108/158 genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98, 69176922.
Elphick, M.R. & Egertova, M. (2001). The neurobiology and evolution of cannabinoid signalling. Philosophy Transaction Royal Society London 356, 381408.
Fergusson, D.M. & Horwood, L.J. (2000). Does cannabis encourages other forms of illicit drug use? Addiction 95, 505520.
Fergusson, D.M. (2003). Cannabis dependence and psychotic symptoms in young people. Psychological Medicine 33, 1521.
Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J. & Ridder, E.M. (2005). Tests of causal linkages between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms. Addiction, 100, 3:354366.
Gorriti, M.A., Rodriguez de Fonseca, F., Navarro, M. & Palomo, T. (1999). Chronic (-)-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment induces sensitization to the psychomotor effects of amphetamine in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 365, 133142.
Herkenham, M., Lynn, A.B., Johnson, M.R., Melvin, L.S., de Costa, B.R. & Rice, K.C., (1991). Characterization and localization of cannabinoid receptorsin rat brain: a quantitative in vitro autoradiographic study. Journal of Neuroscience 11, 563583.
Iversen, L. (2003). Cannabis and the brain. Brain 126, 12521270.
Lewis, C.M., Levinson, D.F., Wise, L.H., DeLisi, L.E., Straub, R.E., Hovatta, I., Williams, N.M., Schwab, S.G., Pulver, A.E., Faraone, S.V., Brzustowicz, L.M., Kaufmann, C.A., Garver, D.L., Gurling, H.M., Lindholm, E., Coon, H., Moises, H.W., Byerley, W., Shaw, S.H., Mesen, A., Sherrington, R., O'Neill, F.A., Walsh, D., Kendler, K.S., Ekelund, J, Paunio, T., Lonnqvist, J., Peltonen, L., O'Donovan, M.C., Owen, M.J., Wildenauer, D.B., Maier, W., Nestadt, G., Blouin, J.L., Antonarakis, S.E., Mowry, B.J., Silverman, J.M., Crowe, R.R., Cloninger, C.R., Tsuang, M., Malaspina, D., Harkavy-Friedman, J.M., Svrakic, D.M., Bassett, A.S., Holcomb, J., Kalsi, G., McQuillin, A., Brynjolfson, J., Sigmundsson, T., Petursson, H., Jazin, E., Zoega, T. & Helgason, T. (2003). Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Part II: Schizophrenia. American Journal of Human Genetics 73, 3448.
Lindqvist, T., Jonsson, S.Warkentin, S. (2001). Frontal lobe dysfunction in long-term cannabis users. Neuroto.xicologv and Teratology 23, 437443.
Mathers, D.C. & Ghosde, A.H. (1992). Cannabis and psychotic illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 161, 648653.
Miller, P., Lawrie, S.M., Hodges, P.R., Clafferty, R., Cosway, E.C. & Johnstone, E.C. (2001). Genetic liability, illicit drug use. life stress and psychotic symptoms: preliminary findings from the Edinburgh study of people at high risk for schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 36, 338342.
Murray, R.M., Grech, A., Phillips, P. & Johnson, S. (2003). What is the relationship between substance abuse and and schizophrenia? In The Epidemiology of Schizophrenia (ed. Murray, R., Jones, P., Susser, E., Os, J. Van and Cannon, Mary), pp.317342. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Negrete, J.C, Knapp, W.P., Douglas, D.E. & Smith, W.B. (1986). Cannabis affects the severity of schizophrenia symptoms: results of a clinical survey. Psychological Medicine 16, 515520.
Rothman, K.J. & Greenland, S. (Eds) (1998). Modern Epidemiology, 2. ed. Lippincott-Raven: Philadelphia.
Silva, P.A. & Stanton, W.R (1996). From Child to Adult: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
Solowij, N., Stephens, R.S., Roffman, R.A., Babor, T., Kadden, R., Miller, M., Christiansen, K., McRee, B. & Vendetti, J. (2002). Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment. Journal of American Medical Association 287, 11231131.
Tanda, G., Poitieri, F.E. & Di Chiara, G. (1997). Cannabinoid and heroin activation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission by a common Ul opioid receptor mechanism. Science 276, 20482050.
Thornicroft, G. (1990). Cannabis and psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 157, 2533.
Van Os, J., Bak, M., Bijl, R.V., De Graaf, R. & Verdoux, H. (2002). Cannabis use and psychosis: a longitudinal population-based study. American Journal of Epidemiology 156, 319327.
Verrico, C.D., Jentsch, J.D. & Roth, R.H. (2003). Persistent and anatomically selective reduction in prefrontal cortical dopamine metabolism after repeated intermittent cannabinoid administration to rats. Synapse 49, 6166.
Voruganti, L., Slomka, P., Zabel, P., Costa, G., So, A., Mattar, A. & Awad, A.G. (2001). Subjective effects of AMPT-induced dopamine depletion in schizophrenia: correlation between dysphoric responses and striatal D(2) binding ratios on SPECT imaging. Neuropsychophannacology 25(5), 642650.
Weinberger, D.R., Egan, M.F., Bertolino, A., Callicott, J.H., Mattay, V.S., Lipska, B.K., Berman, K.F. & Goldberg, T.E. (2001) Prefrontal neurons and the genetics of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 50, 825844.
Zammit, S., Allebeck, P., Andreasson, S., Lundberg, I. & Lewis, G. (2002). Self-reported cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Swedish conscripts of 1969: historical cohort study. British Medical Journal 325, 11991201.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed