Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Zika virus epidemiology: from Uganda to world pandemic, an update

  • C. Talero-Gutiérrez (a1), A. Rivera-Molina (a2), C. Pérez-Pavajeau (a2), I. Ossa-Ospina (a2), C. Santos-García (a2), M. C. Rojas-Anaya (a2) and A. de-la-Torre (a3)...

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus’ dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology. The first isolation occurred in Uganda in 1947. Since then, important outbreaks were documented globally. Consequently, an emergent public health problem arose from a rapidly increasing incidence and its association with the development of neurological diseases such as microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome. Key factors in the successful containment of outbreaks include surveillance of mosquitos in the neighbourhood, an early mosquito control treatment, an assertive information campaign, and the involvement of the local population and healthcare workers. As such, while ZIKV seems to be spreading globally in a similar manner to other arboviruses, such as Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, it can also be rapidly contained due to the pre-existing availability of necessary resources and regulatory tools as control measures. This review aims to provide a description of those characteristics of ZIKV infection that may be useful in the construction of effective outbreak control strategies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Zika virus epidemiology: from Uganda to world pandemic, an update
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Zika virus epidemiology: from Uganda to world pandemic, an update
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Zika virus epidemiology: from Uganda to world pandemic, an update
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: C. Talero-Gutiérrez, E-mail: claudia.talero@urosario.edu.co

References

Hide All
1.World Health Organization (2017) Zika Virus Microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
2.World Health Organization. WHO|WHO Statement on the First Meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR 2005) Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations. WHO. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/1st-emergency-committee-zika/en/. Accessed 4 October 2017.
3.Del Carpio-Orantes, L (2016) [Zika, a neurotropic virus?]. Revista Medica Del Instituto Mexicano Del Seguro Social 54, 540543.
4.Nunes, ML, et al. (2016) Microcephaly and Zika virus: a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the current outbreak in Brazil. Jornal de Pediatria 92, 230240.
5.Oehler, E, et al. (2014) Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain–Barré syndrome – case report, French Polynesia, December 2013. Eurosurveillance 19. Published online: 6 March 2014. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917. ES2014.19.9.20720.
6.Aziz, H, et al. (2017) Zika virus: global health challenge, threat and current situation: Zika virus. Journal of Medical Virology 89, 943951.
7.Brasil, P, et al. (2016) Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. New England Journal of Medicine 375, 23212334.
8.European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2016). Rapid Risk Assessment. Zika Virus Disease Epidemic. Sixth update, 20 May 2016. Stockholm: ECDC.
9.Li, R, et al. (2017) Zika virus infections, a review. Radiology of Infectious Diseases 4, 8893.
10.Desai, SK, et al. (2017) Zika virus (ZIKV): a review of proposed mechanisms of transmission and associated congenital abnormalities. American Journal of Stem Cells 6, 1322.
11.Chibueze, EC, et al. (2017) Zika virus infection in pregnancy: a systematic review of disease course and complications. Reproductive Health 14, 1428.
12.Younger, DS (2016) Epidemiology of Zika virus. Neurologic Clinics 34, 10491056.
13.Grischott, F, et al. (2016) Non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus: a systematic review. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 14, 313330.
14.Jamali Moghadam, SR, et al. (2016) Zika virus: a review of literature. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6, 989994.
15.Dick, GW, Kitchen, S and Haddow, A (1952) Zika virus (I). isolations and serological specificity. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 46, 509520.
16.Lanciotti, RS, et al. (2008) Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14, 12321239.
17.Beckham, JD, et al. (2016) Zika virus as an emerging global pathogen: neurological complications of Zika virus. JAMA Neurology 73, 875.
18.Rabaan, AA, et al. (2017) Overview of Zika infection, epidemiology, transmission and control measures. Journal of Infection and Public Health 10, 141149.
19.Cao-Lormeau, V-M, et al. (2016) Guillain-Barré syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study. The Lancet 387, 15311539.
20.Salinas, JL, et al. (2017) Zika virus disease-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome – Barranquilla, Colombia 2015–2016. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 381, 272277.
21.Styczynski, AR, et al. (2017) Increased rates of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus outbreak in the Salvador metropolitan area, Brazil. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11, e0005869. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005869.
22.Jouannic, J-M, et al. (2016) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia. The Lancet 387, 10511052.
23.Cauchemez, S, et al. (2016) Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013–15: a retrospective study. The Lancet 387, 21252132.
24.Al-Qahtani, AA, et al. (2016) Zika virus: a new pandemic threat. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 10, 201207.
25.Faye, O, et al. (2008) One-step RT-PCR for detection of Zika virus. Journal of Clinical Virology 43, 96101.
26.Wikan, N and Smith, DR (2016) Zika virus: history of a newly emerging arbovirus. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 16, e119e126.
27.Musso, D (2015) Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases 21, 18871887.
28.Vogel, G (2016) Don't blame sports for Zika's spread. Science 351, 13771378.
29.Massad, E, et al. (2017) On the origin and timing of Zika virus introduction in Brazil. Epidemiology and Infection 145, 23032312.
30.Broutet, N, et al. (2016) Zika virus as a cause of neurologic disorders. New England Journal of Medicine 374, 15061509.
31.Song, B-H, et al. (2017) Zika virus: history, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical presentation. Journal of Neuroimmunology 308, 5064.
32.Anaya, J-M, et al. (2017) A comprehensive analysis and immunobiology of autoimmune neurological syndromes during the Zika virus outbreak in Cúcuta, Colombia. Journal of Autoimmunity 77, 123138.
33.European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2016) Communicable Disease Threat Reports Report. Week 25, 19–25 June 2016. Stockholm: ECDC.
34.Krauer, F, et al. (2017) Zika virus infection as a cause of congenital brain abnormalities and Guillain-Barré Syndrome: systematic review. PLoS Medicine 14: e1002203. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002203.
35.Miner, JJ, et al. (2016) Zika virus infection during pregnancy in mice causes placental damage and fetal demise. Cell 165, 10811091.
36.Paixão, ES, et al. (2016) History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of Zika: a systematic review. American Journal of Public Health 106, 606612.
37.Wong, SS-Y, Poon, RW-S and Wong, SC-Y (2016) Zika virus infection – the next wave after dengue? Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 115, 226242.
38.Chan, JFW, et al. (2016) Zika fever and congenital Zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease. Journal of Infection 72, 507524.
39.Ioos, S, et al. (2014) Current Zika virus epidemiology and recent epidemics. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses 44, 302307.
40.Chang, C, et al. (2016) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century. Journal of Autoimmunity 68, 113.
41.de Leal, MC, et al. (2016) Sensorineural hearing loss in a case of congenital Zika virus. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. Published online: June 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2016.06.001.
42.Yepez, JB, et al. (2017) Ophthalmic manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome in Colombia and Venezuela. JAMA Ophthalmology 135, 440445.
43.Carteaux, G, et al. (2016) Zika virus associated with meningoencephalitis. New England Journal of Medicine 374, 15951596.
44.Mécharles, S, et al. (2016) Acute myelitis due to Zika virus infection. The Lancet 387, 1481.
45.Karam, E, et al. (2017) Ocular flutter following Zika virus infection. Journal of NeuroVirology 23, 932934.
46.Sharma, S, et al. (2017) Zika virus: a public health threat. Journal of Medical Virology 89, 16931699.
47.Lee, H-J, Kim, YB and Shin, Y (2017) Advances in epidemiology, biology and laboratory diagnosis of Zika virus. Journal of Bacteriology and Virology 47, 113.
48.Ferreira, MLB, et al. (2017) Guillain–Barré syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection in Brazil: detection of viral RNA and isolation of virus during late infection. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97, 14051409.
49.Meaney-Delman, D, et al. (2016) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in pregnant women. Obstetrics & Gynecology 128, 724730.
50.Gourinat, A-C, et al. (2015) Detection of Zika virus in Urine. Emerging Infectious Diseases 21, 8486.
51.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) Zika virus – transmission and risks. CDC. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/zika/transmission/index.html. Accessed 4 October 2017.
52.Petersen, E, et al. (2016) Rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas – implications for public health preparedness for mass gatherings at the 2016 Brazil olympic games. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 44, 1115.
53.Liu-Helmersson, J, et al. (2016) Climate change and Aedes vectors: 21st century projections for dengue transmission in Europe. EBioMedicine 7, 267277.
54.European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2016) Rapid Risk Assessment. Zika Virus Disease Epidemic. Eigth update, 30 August 2016. Stockholm: ECDC.
55.Besnard, M, et al. (2014) Evidence of perinatal transmission of Zika virus, French Polynesia, December 2013 and February 2014. Eurosurveillance 19, 20751.
56.Dupont-Rouzeyrol, M, et al. (2016) Infectious Zika viral particles in breastmilk. The Lancet 387, 1051.
57.European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2017) Rapid Risk Assessment. Zika Virus Disease Epidemic. Tenth update, 4 April 2017. Stockholm: ECDC.
58.Harrower, J, et al. (2016) Sexual transmission of Zika virus and persistence in semen, New Zealand, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases 22, 18551857.
59.Paz-Bailey, G, et al. (2017) Persistence of Zika virus in body fluids – preliminary report. The New England Journal of Medicine. Published online: 14 February 2017. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1613108.
60.Moghadas, SM, et al. (2017) Asymptomatic transmission and the dynamics of Zika infection. Scientific Reports 7. Published online: December 2017. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-05013-9.
61.Motta, IJF, et al. (2016) Evidence for transmission of Zika virus by platelet transfusion. New England Journal of Medicine 375, 11011103.
62.Barjas-Castro, ML, et al. (2016) Probable transfusion-transmitted Zika virus in Brazil. Transfusion 56, 16841688.
63.Slavov, SN, et al. (2017) Zika virus RNA detection in asymptomatic blood donors during an outbreak in the northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil, 2016. Transfusion 57, 28972901.
64.Leung, GHY, et al. (2015) Zika virus infection in Australia following a monkey bite in Indonesia. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 46, 460464.
65.Maxian, O, et al. (2017) Zika virus dynamics: when does sexual transmission matter? Epidemics 21, 4855.
66.Marini, G, et al. (2017) First outbreak of Zika virus in the continental United States: a modelling analysis. Eurosurveillance 22. Published online: 14 September 2017. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.37.30612.
67.Wang, L, et al. (2017) Modeling the transmission and control of Zika in Brazil. Scientific Reports 7. Published online: December 2017. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-07264-y.
68.Bierle, CJ, et al. (2017) Assessing Zika virus replication and the development of Zika-specific antibodies after a mid-gestation viral challenge in Guinea pigs. PLoS ONE 12: e0187720. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187720.
69.Duggal, NK, et al. (2017) Differential neurovirulence of African and Asian genotype Zika virus isolates in outbred immunocompetent mice. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97, 14101417.
70.Boorman, JP and Porterfield, JS (1956) A simple technique for infection of mosquitoes with viruses; transmission of Zika virus. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50, 238242.
71.Dudley, DM, et al. (2016) A rhesus macaque model of Asian-lineage Zika virus infection. Nature Communications 7, 1761. Published online: 28 June 2016. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12204.
72.Shankar, A, Patil, AA and Skariyachan, S (2017) Recent perspectives on genome, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, vaccine developments, and challenges of Zika virus research. Frontiers in Microbiology 8. Published online: 14 September 2017. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01761.
73.Nguyen, SM, et al. (2017) Highly efficient maternal-fetal Zika virus transmission in pregnant rhesus macaques. PLoS Pathogens 13, e1006378. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006378.
74.Possas, C (2016) Zika: what we do and do not know based on the experiences of Brazil. Epidemiology and Health 38, e2016023. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2016023.
75.Panamerican Health Organization (2012) Situación Actual del Dengue. Informes de Progreso Sobre Asuntos Técnicos. Washington DC: Panamerican Health Organization, pp. 3134.
76.European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2016). Epidemiological Update: Outbreaks of Zika Virus and Complications Potentially Linked to the Zika Virus Infection, 24 November 2016. Available at http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/news-events/epidemiological-update-outbreaks-zika-virus-and-complications-potentially-linked-38. Accessed 29 December 2017.
77.Delisle, E, et al. (2015) Chikungunya outbreak in montpellier, France, September to October 2014. Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Europeen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles. European Communicable Disease Bulletin 20, Published online: 30 April 2015.
78.Müller, JA and Harms, M (2016) Inactivation and environmental stability of Zika virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 22, 16851687.
79.Coyne, CB and Lazear, HM (2016) Zika virus – reigniting the TORCH. Nature Reviews Microbiology 14, 707.
80.European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2016) Preparing for Zika in the EU. Stockholm: ECDC. doi: 10.2900/624835.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Zika virus epidemiology: from Uganda to world pandemic, an update

  • C. Talero-Gutiérrez (a1), A. Rivera-Molina (a2), C. Pérez-Pavajeau (a2), I. Ossa-Ospina (a2), C. Santos-García (a2), M. C. Rojas-Anaya (a2) and A. de-la-Torre (a3)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.