Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A tuberculosis outbreak at an insecure, temporary housing facility, manga café, Tokyo, Japan, 2016–2017

  • M. Endo (a1), M. Ota (a2), A. Kayebeta (a1), I. Takahashi (a1) and Y. Nagata (a2)...

Abstract

In November 2016, a woman in her 30s who stayed at an insecure, temporary housing facility, a manga café in Tokyo, Japan, for a year was diagnosed with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). Since the café had 31 staff members and provided with accommodation to many people, the local health office initiated a contact investigation. This study aims to characterise the cases found in the outbreak. A TB case was defined as a person tested bacteriologically positive for TB, or was determined to have TB by a physician. A latent TB infection case was defined as a person tested positive by interferon-γ release assay. From January 2016 through November 2017, there were 31 staff members at the manga café, of which, six developed TB disease (one smear-negative, culture-positive and five smear- and culture-negative) in addition to seven LTBI. Another long-term customer was found having sputum smear-positive TB. Variable numbers tandem repeat (VNTR) test revealed that the index patient and the long-term customer had the identical type of VNTR; however, one staff member had a different VNTR. Local health authorities should intensify screening long-term customers of such facilities for TB regularly as well as once a TB outbreak occurs.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A tuberculosis outbreak at an insecure, temporary housing facility, manga café, Tokyo, Japan, 2016–2017
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A tuberculosis outbreak at an insecure, temporary housing facility, manga café, Tokyo, Japan, 2016–2017
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A tuberculosis outbreak at an insecure, temporary housing facility, manga café, Tokyo, Japan, 2016–2017
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: M. Ota, E-mail: otam@jata.or.jp

References

Hide All
1.Katsuda, N et al. (2015) Roles of public health centers (Hokenjo) in tuberculosis control in Japan. Nagoya Journal of Medical Science 77, 1928.
2.Tuberculosis Surveillance Center; RIT; JATA (2015) [Tuberculosis annual report 2013 – (4). Tuberculosis treatment and treatment outcomes]. (in Japanese) Kekkaku 90, 595604.
3.Ota, M and Isshiki, M (2004) [An outbreak of tuberculosis in a long-term care unit of a mental hospital]. (in Japanese) Kekkaku 79, 579586.
4.Seki, N (2003) [A suspected case of mass outbreak of tuberculosis infection in a small company separated into two floors]. (in Japanese) Kekkaku 78, 395399.
5.Fujikawa, A et al. (2014) Tuberculosis contact investigation using interferon-gamma release assay with chest x-ray and computed tomography. PLoS ONE 9, e85612.
6.Masuda, M et al. (2008) [Usefulness of QuantiFERON TB-2G in a suspected case of drug resistant tuberculosis outbreak in a university]. (in Japanese) Kekkaku 83, 711.
7.Tasaka, M et al. (2018) A tuberculosis contact investigation involving a large number of contacts tested with interferon-gamma release assay at a nursing school: Kanagawa, Japan, 2012. Western Pacific Surveillance & Response Journal 9, 48. doi: doi:10.5365/wpsar.2018.9.1.001.
8.Matsumoto, K et al. (2011) [An outbreak of tuberculosis in which environmental factors influenced tuberculosis infection]. (in Japanese) Kekkaku 86, 487491.
9.Kinoshita, S et al. (2007) [Outbreaks of tuberculosis in facilities used by an unspecified number of people near a train station – problems regarding tuberculosis in urban areas]. (in Japanese) Kekkaku 82, 749757.
10.Shinjuku, Wikipedia. Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shinjuku (Accessed 15 August 2018).
13.Net café refugee, Wikipedia. Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_café_refugee. (Accessed 31 July 2018).
14.ThingsAsian. Japan's ‘net café’ refugees. Available at http://thingsasian.com/story/japans-net-café-refugees (Accessed 31 July 2018).
15.Ota, M et al. (2017) Risk of tuberculosis among air passengers estimated by interferon gamma release assay: survey of contact investigations, Japan, 2012 to 2015. Euro Surveillance 22, 30492.
16.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines for the investigation of contacts of persons with infectious tuberculosis; recommendations from the National Tuberculosis Controllers Association and CDC, and Guidelines for using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, United States. (2005) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Recommendation Report 54(No. RR-15):137.
17.Diel, R et al. (2010) Evidence-based comparison of commercial interferon-gamma release assays for detecting active TB: a meta analysis. Chest 137, 952968.
18.Sester, M et al. (2011) Interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Respiratory Journal 37, 100111.
19.Higuchi, K et al. (2012) Comparison of specificities between two interferon-gamma release assays in Japan. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 16, 11901192.
20.Ogiwara, T et al. (2013) Tuberculosis screening using a T-cell interferon-γ release assay in Japanese medical students and non-Japanese international students. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 230, 8791.
21.Iwamoto, T et al. (2012) Genetic diversity and transmission characteristics of Beijing family strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Peru. PLoS ONE 7, e49651.
22.Shaw, JB et al. (1954) Infectivity of pulmonary tuberculosis in relation to sputum status. American Review Tuberculosis 69, 724732.
23.van Geuns, HA et al. (1975) Results of contact examination in Rotterdam, 1967–1969. Bulletin of International Union Against Tuberculosis 50, 107121.
24.Grzybowski, S et al. (1975) Contacts of cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis. Bulletin of The international Union Against Tuberculosis 50, 90106.
25.O'Grady, F and Riley, RL (1963) Experimental airborne tuberculosis. Advances in Tuberculosis Research 12, 150190.
26.Kawada, H et al. (1998) Reinfection tuberculosis at a day-laborers’ facility equipped with a sauna. (in Japanese) Japan Journal of Respiratory Medicine 36, 353357.
27.Cheng, JM et al. (2015) A clonal outbreak of tuberculosis in a homeless population in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, 2008–2015. Epidemiology & Infection 143, 32203226.
28.Dobbins, C et al. (2012) Tuberculosis outbreak associated with a homeless shelter – Kane County, Illinois, 2007–2011. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 61, 186188.
29.Scott, J (1993) Homelessness and mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 162, 314324.
30.North, CS et al. (2004) Are rates of psychiatric disorders in the homeless population changing? American Journal of Public Health 94, 103108.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed