Murgue, B, et al.
West Nile in the Mediterranean basin: 1950–2000. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
2001; 951: 117–126.
Schuffenecker, I, et al.
West Nile virus in Morocco, 2003. Emerging Infectious Siseases
2005; 11: 306–309.
Benjelloun, A, El Harrak, M, Belkadi, B. West Nile Disease Epidemiology in North-West Africa: Bibliographical Review. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. Published online: 6 March 2015. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12341.
Figuerola, J, et al.
West Nile virus antibodies in wild birds, Morocco, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2009; 15: 1651–1653.
El Rhaffouli, H, et al.
Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection among humans, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2012; 18: 880–881.
El Rhaffouli, H, et al.
Serological evidence of West Nile Virus infection among humans in the southern Provinces of Morocco. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
2013; 7: 999–1002.
Jentes, ES, et al.
The revised global yellow fever risk map and recommendations for vaccination, 2010: consensus of the Informal WHO Working Group on Geographic Risk for Yellow Fever. Lancet Infectious Diseases
2011; 11: 622–632.
Amarasinghe, A, et al.
Dengue virus infection in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2011; 17: 1349–1354.
Mathengtheng, L, Burt, FJ. Use of envelope domain III protein for detection and differentiation of flaviviruses in the Free State Province, South Africa. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
2014; 14: 261–271.
Nikolay, B, et al.
Usutu virus in Africa. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
2011; 11: 1417–1423.
Buckweitz, S, et al.
Serological, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical detection of West Nile virus in a clinically affected dog. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
2003; 15: 324–329.
Lichtensteiger, CA, et al.
West Nile virus encephalitis and myocarditis in wolf and dog. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2003; 9: 1303–1306.
Read, RW, Rodriguez, DB, Summers, BA. West Nile virus encephalitis in a dog. Veterinary Pathology
2005; 42: 219–222.
Austgen, LE, et al.
Experimental infection of cats and dogs with West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2004; 10: 82–86.
Blackburn, NK, et al.
Susceptibility of dogs to West Nile virus: a survey and pathogenicity trial. Journal of Comparative Pathology
1989; 100: 59–66.
Davoust, B, et al.
Serologic surveillance for West Nile virus in dogs, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2014; 20: 1415–1417.
Busani, L, et al.
West Nile virus circulation in Veneto region in 2008–2009. Epidemiology and Infection
2011; 139: 818–825.
Ozkul, A, et al.
Serological evidence of West Nile Virus (WNV) in mammalian species in Turkey. Epidemiology and Infection
2006; 134: 826–829.
Kile, JC, et al.
Serologic survey of cats and dogs during an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
2005; 226: 1349–1353.
Komar, N, Panella, NA, Boyce, E. Exposure of domestic mammals to West Nile virus during an outbreak of human encephalitis, New York City, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2001; 7: 736–738.
Levy, JK, et al.
Prevalence of infectious diseases in cats and dogs rescued following Hurricane Katrina. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
2011; 238: 311–317.
Mostashari, F, et al.
Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet
2001; 358: 261–264.
Lillibridge, KM, et al.
The 2002 introduction of West Nile virus into Harris County, Texas, an area historically endemic for St. Louis encephalitis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
2004; 70: 676–681.
Lan, D, et al.
Serological evidence of West Nile virus in dogs and cats in China. Archives of Virology
2011; 156: 893–895.
Resnick, MP, et al.
Juvenile dogs as potential sentinels for West Nile virus surveillance. Zoonoses and Public Health
2008; 55: 443–447.
Beck, C, et al.
Flaviviruses in Europe: complex circulation patterns and their consequences for the diagnosis and control of West Nile disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
2013; 10: 6049–6083.
Mansfield, KL, et al.
Flavivirus-induced antibody cross-reactivity. Journal of General Virology
2011; 92: 2821–2829.
Rushton, JO, et al.
Tick-borne encephalitis virus in horses, Austria, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2013; 19: 635–637.
Ziegler, U, et al.
Use of competition ELISA for monitoring of West Nile virus infections in horses in Germany. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
2013; 10: 3112–3120.
Blitvich, BJ, et al.
Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies to west nile virus in multiple avian species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2003; 41: 1041–1047.
Beck, C, et al.
A high-performance multiplex immunoassay for serodiagnosis of flavivirus-associated neurological diseases in horses. BioMed Research International
2015; 2015: 678084.
Chevalier, V, et al.
Environmental risk factors of West Nile virus infection of horses in the Senegal River basin. Epidemiology and Infection
2010; 138: 1601–1609.
Garcia-Bocanegra, I, et al.
Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to West Nile virus in horses from Andalusia, Southern Spain. Veterinary Microbiology
2012; 160: 341–346.
Jimenez-Clavero, MA, et al.
Serosurvey of West Nile virus in equids and bovids in Spain. Veterinary Record
2007; 161: 212.
Durand, B, et al.
West Nile virus outbreak in horses, southern France, 2000: results of a serosurvey. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2002; 8: 777–782.
Durand, B, et al.
Serosurvey for West Nile virus in horses in southern France. Veterinary Record
2005; 157: 711–713.
Khatibzadeh, SM, et al.
West Nile virus-specific immunoglobulin isotype responses in vaccinated and infected horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research
2015; 76: 92–100.
Weingartl, HM, et al.
Comparison of assays for the detection of West Nile virus antibodies in chicken serum. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research
2003; 67: 128–132.
Munnoz, J, et al.
Host-feeding patterns of native Culex pipiens and invasive Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban zones from Barcelona, Spain. Journal of Medical Entomology
2011; 48: 956–960.
Dennett, JA, et al.
Associations between two mosquito populations and West Nile virus in Harris County, Texas, 2003–06. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
2007; 23: 264–275.
Molaei, G, et al.
Host feeding pattern of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and its role in transmission of West Nile virus in Harris County, Texas. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
2007; 77: 73–81.