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Neuraminidase (N) can be extracted from virus particles of influenza B strains by treatment with trypsin, in a form which is free from the viral HA and has specific immunological activity. The N antigen of B/LEE/40 behaves differently from that of 1965–6 strains in gel diffusion and enzyme inhibition tests with animal antisera raised by infection or by artificial immunization with the homologous or heterologous strains. The frequency and titres of NI antibody detected in human sera by B/LEE antigen are different from those found with antigen from B/Eng/ 13/65. The latter antibody appears to contribute to the effect of serum HI antibody in protecting volunteers exposed to a deliberate intranasal challenge infection of the B/Eng/13/65 strain.