Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in England and Wales

  • B. SAID (a1), K. D. HALSBY (a1), C. M. O'CONNOR (a1), J. FRANCIS (a2), K. HEWITT (a3), N. Q. VERLANDER (a4), E. GUY (a2) and D. MORGAN (a1)...

Summary

Over 300 cases of acute toxoplasmosis are confirmed by reference testing in England and Wales annually. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection to inform prevention strategies. Twenty-eight cases and 27 seronegative controls participated. We compared their food history and environmental exposures using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in a model controlling for age and sex. Univariable analysis showed that the odds of eating beef (OR 10·7, P < 0·001), poultry (OR 6·4, P = 0·01) or lamb/mutton (OR 4·9, P = 0·01) was higher for cases than controls. After adjustment for potential confounders a strong association between beef and infection remained (OR 5·6, P = 0·01). The small sample size was a significant limitation and larger studies are needed to fully investigate potential risk factors. The study findings emphasize the need to ensure food is thoroughly cooked and handled hygienically, especially for those in vulnerable groups.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in England and Wales
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in England and Wales
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in England and Wales
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr K. D. Halsby, Emerging and Zoonotic Infections Section, National Infections Service, Public Health England, NW9 5EQ, UK. (Email: kate.halsby@phe.gov.uk)

References

Hide All
1. EFSA. Surveillance and monitoring of Toxoplasma in humans, food and animals (http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/biohaz_op_ej583_toxoplasma_en%2C3.pdf). EFSA Journal 2007; 583: 164.
2. McCabe, R, et al. Clinical spectrum in 107 cases of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. Review of Infectious Diseases 1987; 9: 754774.
3. Torrey, E, Yolken, R. Schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007; 33: 727728.
4. Tenter, A, Heckerroth, A, Weiss, L. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. International Journal of Parasitology 2000; 30: 12171258.
5. Kapperud, G, et al. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy. Results of a prospective case-control study in Norway. American Journal of Epidemiology 1996; 144: 405412.
6. Tenter, A. Toxoplasma gondii in animals used for human consumption. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 2009; 104: 364369.
7. Bowie, W, et al. Outbreak of toxoplasmosis associated with municipal drinking water. The BC Tocoplasma Investigation Team. Lancet 1997; 350: 173177.
8. PHE. Toxoplasmosis: diagnosis, epidemiology and prevention. (https://www.gov.uk/guidance/toxoplasmosis).
9. ACMSF. Risk profile in relation to toxoplasma in the food chain, 2012.
10. Defra, PHE. United Kingdom Zoonoses Report (https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/zoonoses-reports).
12. Cook, A, et al. Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study. European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis. British Medical Journal 2000; 321: 142147.
13. Buffolano, W, et al. Risk factors for recent toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Naples. Epidemiology & Infection 1996; 116: 347351.
14. Baril, L, et al. Risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in pregnancy: a case-control study in France. Scandinavin Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999; 31: 305309.
15. Nash, J, et al. Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Kent, United Kingdom. Epidemiology & Infection 2005; 133: 475483.
16. Said, B, et al. Hepatitis E outbreak on cruise ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 17381744.
17. Said, B, et al. Hepatitis E virus in England and Wales: indigenous infection is associated with the consumption of processed pork products. Epidemiology & Infection 2014; 142: 14671475.
18. Scallan, E, et al. An assessment of the human health impact of seven leading foodborne pathogensin the United States using disability adjusted life years. Epidemiology & Infection 2015; 143: 27952804.
19. Mangen, M, et al. Cost-of-illness and disease burden of food-related pathogens in the Netherlands, 2011. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2015; 196: 8493.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed