Puumala virus (PUUV) is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. PUUV is transmitted to humans via aerosolized excreta of the infected bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). Current methods for screening of the PUUV prevalence among bank vole populations are laborious, combining sampling in the field and subsequent analyses in the laboratory. In order to facilitate animal testing, a new serological immunochromatographic rapid test was developed. The test uses PUUV nucleocapsid protein as antigen, and it detects anti-PUUV IgG antibodies in rodents. With fresh and undiluted bank-vole blood samples (n=105) the efficacy of the test was 100%, and with frozen and diluted samples (n=78) the efficacy was 91%. The test was also shown to detect related hantavirus infections in Norway lemmings and sibling voles (n=31) with 99% efficacy. The test provides an applicable tool for studying PUUV and related hantavirus infections in arvicoline rodents.