Hayman, DTS, et al.
Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions. Zoonoses and Public Health
2013; 60: 2–21.
Calisher, CH, et al.
Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews
2006; 19: 531–545.
Stoner-Duncan, B, Streicker, DG, Tedeschi, CM. Vampire bats and rabies: toward an ecological solution to a public health problem. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
2014; 8: e2867.
Plowright, RK, et al.
Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The Royal Society, 2015; 282: 2014–2124.
Leroy, EM, et al.
Human Ebola outbreak resulting from direct exposure to fruit bats in Luebo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2007. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
2009; 9: 723–728.
Luis, AD, et al.
A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
2013; 280: 2012–2753.
Luis, AD, et al.
Network analysis of host–virus communities in bats and rodents reveals determinants of cross-species transmission. Ecology Letters
2015; 18: 1153–1162.
Olival, KJ, et al.
Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals. Nature
2017; 546: 646–650.
Brook, CE, Dobson, AP. Bats as ‘special'reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Trends in Microbiology
2015; 23: 172–180.
Mühldorfer, K. Bats and bacterial pathogens: a review. Zoonoses and Public Health
2013; 60: 93–103.
Muhldorfer, K, et al.
Yersinia species isolated from bats, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2010; 16: 578–581.
Bunnell, JE, et al.
Detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. infections among mammals captured in the Peruvian Amazon basin region. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
2000; 63: 255–258.
Wray, AK, et al.
Viral diversity, prey preference, and Bartonella prevalence in Desmodus rotundus in Guatemala. EcoHealth
Veikkolainen, V, et al.
Bats as reservoir hosts of human bacterial pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis
. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2014; 20: 960–967.
Lilley, TM, et al.
Molecular detection of Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis in North American Bats. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
2017; 17: 243–246.
Mascarelli, PE, et al.
Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). Parasites & Vectors
2014; 7: 117.
Millán, J, et al.
Widespread infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas in bats in Spain, including a hemoplasma closely related to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis’. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
2015; 39: 9–12.
Banskar, S, Mourya, DT, Shouche, YS. Bacterial diversity indicates dietary overlap among bats of different feeding habits. Microbiological Research
2016; 182: 99–108.
Ikeda, P, et al.
Evidence and molecular characterization of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in neotropical bats in Brazil. Epidemiology & Infection
2017; 145: 2038–2052.
Messick, JB. Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas): a review and new insights into pathogenic potential. Veterinary Clinical Pathology
2004; 33: 2–13.
Neimark, H, Kocan, KM. The cell wall-less rickettsia Eperythrozoon wenyonii is a Mycoplasma
. FEMS Microbiology Letters
1997; 156: 287–291.
Neimark, H, et al.
Phylogenetic analysis and description of Eperythrozoon coccoides, proposal to transfer to the genus Mycoplasma as Mycoplasma coccoides comb. nov. and request for an opinion. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
2005; 55: 1385–1391.
Willi, B, et al.
From Haemobartonella to hemoplasma: molecular methods provide new insights. Veterinary Microbiology
2007; 125: 197–209.
Willi, B, et al.
Identification, molecular characterization, and experimental transmission of a new hemoplasma isolate from a cat with hemolytic anemia in Switzerland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2005; 43: 2581–2585.
Museux, K, et al.
In vivo transmission studies of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ in the domestic cat. Veterinary Research
2009; 40: 1, 45–14.
Dean, RS, et al.
Use of real-time PCR to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in the saliva and salivary glands of haemoplasma-infected cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
2008; 10: 413–417.
Groebel, K, et al.
Mycoplasma suis invades porcine erythrocytes. Infection and Immunity
2009; 77: 576–584.
Maggi, RG, et al.
Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
2013; 36: 607–611.
Bonato, L, et al.
Occurrence and molecular characterization of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in neotropical primates from Brazilian Amazon. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
2015; 42: 15–20.
Sykes, JE, et al.
Human coinfection with Bartonella henselae and Two hemotropic mycoplasma variants resembling Mycoplasma ovis
. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2010; 48: 3782–3785.
Pires dos Santos, A, et al.
Hemoplasma infection in HIV-positive patient, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2008; 14: 1922–1924.
Webster, D, et al.
Chronic bronchitis in immunocompromised patients: association with a novel mycoplasma species. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
2003; 22: 530–534.
Bosnic, D, et al.
Rare zoonosis (hemotrophic mycoplasma infection) in a newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus patient followed by a Nocardia asteroides pneumonia. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
2010; 14: 92–95.
Yang, Z, et al.
Haemotrophic mycoplasma: review of aetiology and prevalence. Reviews in Medical Microbiology
2007; 18: 1–3.
Steer, JA, et al.
A novel hemotropic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) in a patient with hemolytic anemia and pyrexia. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2011; 53: e147–e151.
Sashida, H, et al.
Two clusters among Mycoplasma haemomuris strains, defined by the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
2013; 75: 643–648.
Pitcher, DG, Nicholas, RAJ. Mycoplasma host specificity: fact or fiction?
The Veterinary Journal
2005; 170: 300–306.
Greenhall, AM, Schmidt, U. Natural History of Vampire Bats. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1988.
Voigt, CC, Kelm, DH. Host preference of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus; Chiroptera) assessed by stable isotopes. Journal of Mammalogy
2006; 87: 1–6.
Streicker, DG, Allgeier, JE. Foraging choices of vampire bats in diverse landscapes: potential implications for land-use change and disease transmission. Journal of Applied Ecology
2016; 53: 1280–1288.
Bobrowiec, PED, Lemes, MR, Gribel, R. Prey preference of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus, Chiroptera) using molecular analysis. Journal of Mammalogy
2015; 96: 54–63.
Schneider, MC, et al.
Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America?. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
2009; 25: 260–269.
Condori-Condori, RE, et al.
Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2013; 19: 1463.
da Mendes, WS, et al.
An outbreak of bat-transmitted human rabies in a village in the Brazilian Amazon. Revista de Saúde Pública
2009; 43: 1075–1077.
Schaer, J, et al.
Epauletted fruit bats display exceptionally high infections with a hepatocystis species complex in South Sudan. Scientific Reports
2017; 7: 6928.
Streicker, DG, et al.
Host–pathogen evolutionary signatures reveal dynamics and future invasions of vampire bat rabies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
2016; 113: 10926–10931.
Becker, DJ, et al.
Predictors and immunological correlates of sublethal mercury exposure in vampire bats. Royal Society Open Science
2017; 4: 170073.
Delpietro, HA, Russo, RG. Observations of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata) in captivity. Mammalian Biology-Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde
2002; 67: 65–78.
Ahmed, HA, et al.
The best practice for preparation of samples from FTA® cards for diagnosis of blood borne infections using African trypanosomes as a model system. Parasites & Vectors
2011; 4: 1–7.
Volokhov, DV, et al.
Novel hemotrophic mycoplasma identified in naturally infected California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Microbiology
2011; 149: 262–268.
Christen, R. Identifications of pathogens – a bioinformatic point of view. Current Opinion in Biotechnology
2008; 19: 266–273.
Ashelford, KE, et al.
New screening software shows that most recent large 16S rRNA gene clone libraries contain chimeras. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2006; 72: 5734–5741.
Hugenholtz, P, Huber, T. Chimeric 16S rDNA sequences of diverse origin are accumulating in the public databases. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
2003; 53: 289–293.
Wright, ES, Yilmaz, LS, Noguera, DR. DECIPHER, a search-based approach to chimera identification for 16S rRNA sequences. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2012; 78: 717–725.
Edgar, RC, et al.
UCHIME improves sensitivity and speed of chimera detection. Bioinformatics
2011; 27: 2194–2200.
Volokhov, DV, et al.
RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene and the 16S–23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS) as complementary molecular markers in addition to the 16S rRNA gene for phylogenetic analysis and identification of the species of the family. Mycoplasmataceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
2012; 62: 515–528.
Volokhov, DV, et al.
Prevalence, genotype richness, and coinfection patterns of hemotropic mycoplasmas in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in environmentally protected and urbanized barrier islands. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2017; 83(9): 00211-17.
R Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2013.
Hope, ACA. A simplified Monte Carlo Significance test procedure. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B (Methodological)
1968; 30: 582–598.
Benjamini, Y, Hochberg, Y. Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological)
1995; 57: 289–300.
Zuur, A, et al.
Mixed Effects Models and Extensions in Ecology with R. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media; 2009.
Nakagawa, S, Schielzeth, H. A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution
2013; 4: 133–142.
Burnham, KP, Anderson, DR. Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2002.
Cade, BS. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences. Ecology
2015; 96: 2370–2382.
Barton, K. MuMIn: Multi-model inference. R package version 1·9. 5. 2013.
Venables, WN, Ripley, BD. Modern Applied Statistics with S-PLUS. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
Graf, EH, et al.
Unbiased detection of respiratory viruses by use of RNA sequencing-based metagenomics: a systematic comparison to a commercial PCR panel. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2016; 54: 1000–1007.
Yang, J, et al.
Unbiased parallel detection of viral pathogens in clinical samples by use of a metagenomic approach. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2011; 49: 3463–3469.
Plaire, D, et al.
Comparative analysis of the sensitivity of metagenomic sequencing and PCR to detect a biowarfare simulant (Bacillus atrophaeus) in soil samples. PLoS ONE
2017; 12: e0177112.
Martin, M. Cutadapt removes adapter sequences from high-throughput sequencing reads. EMBnet Journal
2011; 17: 10–12.
Schmieder, R, Edwards, R. Quality control and preprocessing of metagenomic datasets. Bioinformatics
2011; 27: 863–864.
Altschul, SF, et al.
Basic local alignment search tool. Journal of Molecular Biology
1990; 215: 403–410.
Bankevich, A, et al.
SPAdes: a new genome assembly algorithm and its applications to single-cell sequencing. Journal of Computational Biology
2012; 19: 455–477.
Murray, RGE, Stackebrandt, E. Taxonomic note: implementation of the provisional status candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
1995; 45: 186–187.
Brown, DR, Whitcomb, RF, Bradbury, JM. Revised minimal standards for description of new species of the class Mollicutes (division Tenericutes). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
2007; 57: 2703–2719.
Pettersson, B, et al.
Updated phylogenetic description of the Mycoplasma hominis cluster (Weisburg et al. 1989) based on 16S rDNA sequences. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
2000; 50: 291–301.
Tasker, S, Lappin, MR.
Haemobartonella felis: recent developments in diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
2002; 4: 3–11.
Martin, LB, Weil, ZM, Nelson, RJ. Seasonal changes in vertebrate immune activity: mediation by physiological trade-offs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
2008; 363: 321–339.
Plowright, RK, et al.
Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
2008; 275: 861–869.
George, DB, et al.
Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Unites States of America
2011; 108: 10208–10213.
Amman, BR, et al.
Seasonal pulses of marburg virus circulation in Juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus bats coincide with periods of increased risk of human infection. PLoS Pathogens
2012; 8: e1002877.
Delpietro, HA, et al.
Reproductive seasonality, sex ratio and philopatry in Argentina's common vampire bats. Royal Society Open Science
2017; 4: 160959.
Streicker, DG, et al.
Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of rabies exposure in vampire bats: implications for transmission and control. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
2012; 279: 3384–3392.
Christe, , Arlettaz, , Vogel, . Variation in intensity of a parasitic mite (Spinturnix myoti) in relation to the reproductive cycle and immunocompetence of its bat host (Myotis myotis). Ecology Letters
2000; 3: 207–212.
Fujihara, Y, et al.
Prevalence of hemoplasma infection among cattle in the western part of Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
2011; 73: 1653–1655.
Walker Vergara, R, et al.
Prevalence, risk factor analysis, and hematological findings of hemoplasma infection in domestic cats from Valdivia, Southern Chile. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
2016; 46: 20–26.
Soto, F, et al.
Occurrence of canine hemotropic mycoplasmas in domestic dogs from urban and rural areas of the Valdivia Province, southern Chile. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
2017; 50: 70–77.
Willi, B, et al.
Worldwide occurrence of feline hemoplasma infections in wild felid species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2007; 45: 1159–1166.
Hawley, DM, Altizer, SM. Disease ecology meets ecological immunology: understanding the links between organismal immunity and infection dynamics in natural populations. Functional Ecology
2011; 25: 48–60.
Becker, DJ, Streicker, DG, Altizer, S. Linking anthropogenic resources to wildlife–pathogen dynamics: a review and meta-analysis. Ecology Letters
2015; 18: 483–495.
Blackwood, JC, et al.
Resolving the roles of immunity, pathogenesis, and immigration for rabies persistence in vampire bats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
2013; 110: 20837–20842.
Plowright, RK, et al.
Transmission or within-host dynamics driving pulses of zoonotic viruses in reservoir–host populations. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
2016; 10: e0004796.
Greenhall, AM, Schmidt, U, Lopez-Forment, W. Attacking behavior of the vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, under field conditions in Mexico. Biotropica
1971; 3: 136.
Wilkinson, GS. Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat. Nature
1984; 308: 181–184.