Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Neisseria meningitidis carriage and risk factors among teenagers in Suizhou city in China

  • Fei He (a1), Hong mei Yang (a1), Guo ming Li (a1), Bing qing Zhu (a2), Yating Zhang (a1), Hong lin Jiang (a1), Min Yuan (a2), Yongzhong Jiang (a1) and Jing Lv (a1)...

Abstract

Teenagers are important carriers of Neisseria meningitidis, which is a leading cause of invasive meningococcal disease. In China, the carriage rate and risk factors among teenagers are unclear. The present study presents a retrospective analysis of epidemiological data for N. meningitidis carriage from 2013 to 2017 in Suizhou city, China. The carriage rates were 3.26%, 2.22%, 3.33%, 3.53% and 9.88% for 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. From 2014 to 2017, the carriage rate in the 15- to 19-year-old age group (teenagers) was the highest and significantly higher than that in remain age groups. Subsequently, a larger scale survey (December 2017) for carriage rate and relative risk factors (population density, time spent in the classroom, gender and antibiotics use) were investigated on the teenagers (15- to 19-year-old age) at the same school. The carriage rate was still high at 33.48% (223/663) and varied greatly from 6.56% to 52.94% in a different class. Population density of the classroom was found to be a significant risk factor for carriage, and 1.4 persons/m2 is recommended as the maximum classroom density. Further, higher male gender ratio and more time spent in the classroom were also significantly associated with higher carriage. Finally, antibiotic use was associated with a significantly lower carriage rate. All the results imply that attention should be paid to the teenagers and various measures can be taken to reduce the N. meningitidis carriage, to prevent and control the outbreak of IMD.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Neisseria meningitidis carriage and risk factors among teenagers in Suizhou city in China
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Neisseria meningitidis carriage and risk factors among teenagers in Suizhou city in China
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Neisseria meningitidis carriage and risk factors among teenagers in Suizhou city in China
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Jing Lv, E-mail: superjing22@sina.com, Yongzhong Jiang, E-mail: hbcdcxd@163.com

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Fei He, Hong mei Yang, Guo ming Li are equal contributors.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1.Rosenstein, NE et al. (1974) Meningococcal disease. New England Journal of Medicine 96, 13781388.
2.Devoe, IW (1982) The meningococcus and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Microbiology (Reading, England) 46, 162190.
3.Broome, CV (1986) The carrier state: Neisseria meningitidis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 18(Suppl A), 2534.
4.Harrison, LH et al. (2011) The Global Meningococcal Initiative: recommendations for reducing the global burden of meningococcal disease. Vaccine 29, 33633371.
5.Tekin, RT et al. (2017) The prevalence, serogroup distribution and risk factors of meningococcal carriage in adolescents and young adults in Turkey. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 13, 11821189.
6.Harrison, OB et al. (2013) Description and nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis capsule locus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19, 566573.
7.Moreno, J et al. (2015) Characterization of carriage isolates of Neisseria meningitidis in the adolescents and young adult population of Bogota (Colombia). PLoS ONE 10, e0135497.
8.Balmer, P et al. (2015) Impact of meningococcal vaccination on carriage and disease transmission: a review of the literature. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 14, 11181130.
9.Nunes, AM et al. (2016) Meningococcal carriage among adolescents after mass meningococcal C conjugate vaccination campaigns in Salvador, Brazil. PLoS ONE 11, e0166475.
10.Rodriguez, P et al. (2014) Meningococcal carriage prevalence in university students, 18–24 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Vaccine 32, 56775680.
11.Mac, LJ et al. (2006) Social behavior and meningococcal carriage in British teenagers. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12, 950957.
12.Bruce, MG et al. (2001) Risk factors for meningococcal disease in college students. The Journal of American Medical Association 286, 688693.
13.Kamiya, H et al. (2015) Unexpected high carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis among dormitory residences in Tokyo, Japan. In Open Forum Infectious Diseases 2(suppl 1), 1163.
14.Soriano, GM et al. (2011) Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in Europe: a review of studies undertaken in the region. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy 9, 761774.
15.Trotter, CL et al. (2007) Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 18, 77977803.
16.Ali, O et al. (2015) (Menafricar Consortium) The diversity of meningococcal carriage across the African meningitis belt and the impact of vaccination with a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Journal of Infectious Diseases 212, 12981307.
17.Zhang, YT et al. (2019) Flora and molecular typing of Neisseria meningitidis in Suizhou City, Hubei Province, from 2010 to 2018. Chinese Vaccine and Immunization 2, 145149.
18.Zhang, YW et al. (2016) Burden of Neisseria meningitidis infections in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Global Health 6, 020409.
19.Christensen, H et al. (2010) Meningococcal carriage by age: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infection Diseases 10, 853886.
20.Campbell, H et al. (2015) Targeted vaccination of teenagers following continued rapid endemic expansion of a single meningococcal group W clone (sequence type 11 clonal complex), United Kingdom 2015. Eurosurveillance 20, 21188.
21.Ju, CY et al. (2008) Survey of prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis in heathy population in Shenzhen City in 2005 and 2006. China Tropical Medicine 8, 8081.
22.Wang, YT et al. (2015) Analysis of Neisseria meningitidis carrier in healthy people in Hebei Province from 2006 to 2013. China Vaccine and Immunity 2, 3135.
23.Niu, HC et al. (2018) Analysis of presence status, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis among healthy residents in Changping district of Beijing, 2016. Jiangsu Journal of Preventive 2, 131134.
24.Yan, YF et al. (2018) Germ-carrying rate of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis and molecular typing of bacteria among healthy population in Handan City, 2009–2015. Practical Preventive Medicine 25, 209211.
25.Bennett, DE et al. (2004) PCR-based assay for detection of Neisseria meningitidis capsular serogroups 29E, X, and Z. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42, 17641765.
26.Zhu BQ, et al. (2012) Development of a multiplex PCR assay for detection and genogrouping of Neisseria meningitidis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 50, 4651.
27.Jennifer, MDL et al. (2003) Genetic basis for nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 187, 16161628.
28.Bai, X et al. (2019) Prevention and control of meningococcal disease: updates from the Global Meningococcal Initiative in Eastern Europe. Journal of Infection 79, 528541.
29.Dretler, AW et al. (2018) Progress toward the global control of Neisseria meningitidis: 21st century vaccines, current guidelines, and challenges for future vaccine development. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 14, 11461160.
30.Borrow, R et al. (2013) Effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C vaccine program. Vaccine 31, 44774486.
31.Vetter, V et al. (2016) Routinely vaccinating adolescents against meningococcus: targeting transmission & disease. Expert Review of Vaccines 15, 641658.
32.Stuart, JM et al. (1987) An outbreak of meningococcal disease in Stonehouse: planning and execution of a large-scale survey. Epidemiology and Infection 99, 579589.
33.Orren, A et al. (1994) Characterization of strains of Neisseria meningitidis recovered from complement-sufficient and complement-deficient patients in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 32, 21852191.
34.Gilmore, A et al. (1999) Meningococcal disease at the University of Southampton: outbreak investigation. Epidemiology and Infection 123, 185192.
35.Neal, KR et al. (2000) Changing carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis among university students during the first week of term: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 320, 846849.

Keywords

Neisseria meningitidis carriage and risk factors among teenagers in Suizhou city in China

  • Fei He (a1), Hong mei Yang (a1), Guo ming Li (a1), Bing qing Zhu (a2), Yating Zhang (a1), Hong lin Jiang (a1), Min Yuan (a2), Yongzhong Jiang (a1) and Jing Lv (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.