Gyles, CL. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: an overview. Journal of Animal Science
2007; 85: E45–E62.
Strachan, NJC, et al.
Escherichia coli O157: burger bug or environmental pathogen?
International Journal of Food Microbiology
2006; 112: 129–137.
Hussein, HS, Bollinger, LM. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef cattle. Journal of Food Protection
2005; 68: 2224–2241.
Hussein, HS, Sakuma, T. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in dairy cattle and their products. Journal of Dairy Science
2005; 88: 450–465.
Lammers, GA, et al.
Synchronization of E. coli O157 shedding in a grass-fed beef herd: a longitudinal study. Epidemiology and Infection
2015; 143: 3244–3255.
Venegas-Vargas, C, et al.
Factors associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli shedding by dairy and beef cattle. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2016; 82: 5049–5056.
Hussein, HS, Lake, SL, Ringkob, TP. Review: cattle as a reservoir of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli including O157:H7 – pre- and post-harvest control measures to assure beef safety. Professional Animal Scientist
2001; 17: 1–16.
Kuhnert, P, et al.
Prevalence and risk-factor analysis of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli in faecal samples of organically and conventionally farmed dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology
2005; 109: 37–45.
Sasaki, Y, et al.
Prevalence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 in beef farms. Veterinary Microbiology
2011; 150: 140–145.
Kobayashi, H, et al.
Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from healthy cattle in Japan. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2001; 67: 484–489.
Mayer, CL, et al.
Shiga toxins and the pathophysiology of hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and animals. Toxins (Basel)
2012; 4: 1261–1287.
Scheutz, F, et al.
Multicenter evaluation of a sequence-based protocol for subtyping Shiga toxins and standardizing Stx nomenclature. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2012; 50: 2951–2963.
Smith, DR, et al.
A two-dose regimen of a vaccine against type III secreted proteins reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of the terminal rectum in beef cattle in commercial feedlots. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
2009; 6: 155–161.
Pierard, D, et al.
O157:H7 and O104:H4 Vero/Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli outbreaks: respective role of cattle and humans. Veterinary Research
2012; 43: 12.
Lu, Y, et al.
A new immunoglobulin-binding protein, EibG, is responsible for the chain-like adhesion phenotype of locus of enterocyte effacement-negative, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
. Infection and Immunity
2006; 74: 5747–5755.
Renter, DG, et al.
Prevalence, risk factors, O serogroups, and virulence profiles of Shiga toxin-producing bacteria from cattle production environments. Journal of Food Protection
2005; 68: 1556–1565.
Cho, S, et al.
Prevalence of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from dairy farms and county fairs. Veterinary Microbiology
2006; 118: 289–298.
Lee, K, et al.
Multivariate analyses revealed distinctive features differentiating human and cattle isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in Japan. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2011; 49: 1495–1500.
Thrusfield, M. Survey. In: Veterinary Epidemiology, 3rd edn. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd., 2009, pp. 228–246.
Gill, A, et al.
Development of a method for the detection of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in food. Journal of Food Protection
2012; 75: 827–837.
Beige, J, et al.
Clinical evaluation of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis PCR assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
1995; 33: 90–95.
Paddock, Z, et al.
Applicability of a multiplex PCR to detect O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 serogroups of Escherichia coli in cattle feces. Veterinary Microbiology
2012; 156: 381–388.
Iguchi, A, et al.
Escherichia coli O-Genotyping PCR: a comprehensive and practical platform for molecular O serogrouping. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2015; 53: 2427–2432.
Doumith, M, et al.
Improved multiplex PCR strategy for rapid assignment of the four major Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2012; 50: 3108–3110.
Ramachandran, V, et al.
Distribution of intimin subtypes among Escherichia coli isolates from ruminant and human sources. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2003; 41: 5022–5032.
Pritchard, JK, Stephens, M, Donnelly, P. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics
2000; 155: 945–959.
Evanno, G, Regnaut, S, Goudet, J. Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Molecular Ecology
2005; 14: 2611–2620.
Valde, JP, et al.
Comparison of ketosis, clinical mastitis, somatic cell count, and reproductive performance between free stall and tie stall barns in Norwegian dairy herds with automatic feeding. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
1997; 38: 181–192.
Simensen, E, et al.
Housing system and herd size interactions in Norwegian dairy herds; associations with performance and disease incidence. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
2010; 52: 14.
Berends, I, et al.
Prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy and veal herds and risk factors for veal herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine
2008; 87: 301–310.
Chase-Topping, ME, et al.
Risk factors for the presence of high-level shedders of Escherichia coli O157 on Scottish farms. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2007; 45: 1594–1603.
R Core Team. R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2014.
Blanco, JE, et al.
Serotypes, virulence genes, and intimin types of Shiga toxin (verotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from human patients: prevalence in Lugo, Spain, from 1992 through 1999. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2004; 42: 311–319.
Mora, A, et al.
Seropathotypes, phylogroups, Stx subtypes, and intimin types of wildlife-carried, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains with the same characteristics as human-pathogenic isolates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2012; 78: 2578–2585.
Cookson, AL, et al.
Intimin subtyping of Escherichia coli: concomitant carriage of multiple intimin subtypes from forage-fed cattle and sheep. FEMS Microbiology Letters
2007; 272: 163–171.
Schmidt, H, et al.
Identification and characterization of a novel genomic island integrated at selC in locus of enterocyte effacement-negative, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
. Infection and Immunity
2001; 69: 6863–6873.
Shen, S, et al.
Evidence for a hybrid genomic island in verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli CL3 (serotype O113:H21) containing segments of EDL933 (serotype O157:H7) O islands 122 and 48. Infection and Immunity
2004; 72: 1496–1503.
Paton, AW, et al.
Characterization of Saa, a novel autoagglutinating adhesin produced by locus of enterocyte effacement-negative Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strains that are virulent for humans. Infection and Immunity
2001; 69: 6999–7009.
Fox, JT, et al.
Efficacy of Escherichia coli O157:H7 siderophore receptor/porin proteins-based vaccine in feedlot cattle naturally shedding E. coli O157. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
2009; 6: 893–899.
Sasaki, Y, et al.
Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 isolates from beef cattle. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
2012; 65: 117–121.
Kijima-Tanaka, M, et al.
A national surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from food-producing animals in Japan. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
2003; 51: 447–451.
Hosoi, Y, et al.
Sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents for therapeutic use in food-producing animal species in Japan between 2005 and 2010. Scientific and Technical Review
2014; 33: 1007–1015.
Sandhu, KS, Gyles, CL. Pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in the intestine of calves. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research
2002; 66: 65–72.
Dorn, CR, et al.
Characteristics of Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli associated with intestinal colonization and diarrhea in calves. Veterinary Microbiology
1993; 36: 149–159.
Williams, KJ, et al.
Risk factors for Escherichia coli O157 shedding and super-shedding by dairy heifers at pasture. Epidemiology and Infection
2015; 143: 1004–1015.