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Long-term effectiveness of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine 22–28 years after immunization in a hepatitis B virus endemic rural area: is an adult booster dose needed?

  • H. LI (a1) (a2), G. J. LI (a1) (a2), Q. Y. CHEN (a1) (a2), Z. L. FANG (a1) (a2), X. Y. WANG (a1) (a2), C. TAN (a1) (a2), Q. L. YANG (a1) (a2), F. Z. WANG (a3), F. WANG (a4), S. ZHANG (a4), S. L. BI (a4) and L. P. SHEN (a4)...

Summary

Longan County is considered a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). The plasma-derived vaccine has been used in newborns in this area since 1987. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this vaccine. In total, 1634 participants born during 1987–1993 and who had received a series of plasma-derived HB vaccinations at ages 0, 1, and 6 months were enrolled. Serological HBV markers were detected and compared with previous survey data. Overall the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in all participants was 3·79%; 3·47% of subjects who had received the first dose within 24 h were HBsAg positive, and 8·41% of subjects who had received a delayed first dose were also HBsAg positive. There were 1527 subjects identified who had received the first dose within 24 h and whose HBsAg and anti-HBc prevalence increased yearly after immunization, while the anti-HBs-positive rate and vaccine effectiveness declined. The geometric mean concentration of antibody in the anti-HB-positive participants was 55·13 mIU/ml and this declined after immunization. Fewer than 2·0% of participants had anti-HB levels ⩾1000 mIU/ml. The data show that the protective efficacy of the plasma-derived vaccinations declined and administration of HB vaccine within 24 h of birth was very important. To reduce the risk of HBV infection in this highly endemic area, a booster dose might be necessary if anti-HBs levels fall below 10 mIU/ml after age 18 years. Furthermore, studies on the immune memory induced by plasma-derived HB vaccine are needed.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr L. P. Shen, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. (Email:slpss128@126.com)

References

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