Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Inter- and intra-specific exposure to parasites and pathogens via the faecal–oral route: a consequence of behaviour in a patchy environment

  • L. A. SMITH (a1), G. MARION (a2), D. L. SWAIN (a3), P. C. L. WHITE (a4) and M. R. HUTCHINGS (a1)...

Summary

Livestock herbivores are at risk of inter- and intra-specific exposure to parasites/pathogens via the faecal–oral route during grazing. Each contact between livestock and faeces in the environment is a potential parasite/pathogen transmission event. Cattle grazing contact with faeces varies in relation to the species depositing the faeces and the distribution of the faeces. We used a foraging model to simulate the grazing behaviour of beef cattle in two grazing systems to compare the relative inter-specific and intra-specific exposure risks to parasites/pathogens. Overall, there is a greater level of intra- vs. inter-specific risk via the faecal–oral route. However, under certain conditions, particularly for microparasite infections, e.g. paratuberculosis in rabbits and bovine tuberculosis in badgers, wildlife may pose a significant exposure risk to parasites/pathogens. These risks can be enhanced when cattle are first turned out onto pasture and in situations where intra-specific variations in wildlife behaviour result in more dispersed defecation patterns.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Inter- and intra-specific exposure to parasites and pathogens via the faecal–oral route: a consequence of behaviour in a patchy environment
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Inter- and intra-specific exposure to parasites and pathogens via the faecal–oral route: a consequence of behaviour in a patchy environment
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Inter- and intra-specific exposure to parasites and pathogens via the faecal–oral route: a consequence of behaviour in a patchy environment
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr L. A. Smith, Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK. (Email: l.a.smith@stir.ac.uk)

References

Hide All
1. Sykes, AR. Endoparasites and herbivore nutrition. In: Hacker, JB, Ternouth, JH eds. The Nutrition of Herbivores. Harickvale, Australia: Academic Press, 1987, pp. 211232.
2. Cooper, J, Gordon, IJ, Pike, AW. Strategies for the avoidance of faeces by grazing sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2000; 69: 1553.
3. Forbes, TDA, Hodgson, J. The reaction of grazing sheep and cattle to the presence of dung from the same or other species. Grass and Forage Science 1985; 40: 177182.
4. Hutchings, MR, et al. Behavioural strategies used by parasitized and non-parasitized sheep to avoid ingestion of gastro-intestinal nematodes associated with faeces. Animal Science 1998; 67: 97106.
5. Benham, PF, Broom, DM. Responses of dairy cows to badger urine and faeces on pasture with reference to bovine tuberculosis transmission. British Veterinary Journal 1991; 147: 517532.
6. Hutchings, MR, Harris, S. Effects of farm management practices on cattle grazing behaviour and the potential for transmission of bovine tuberculosis from badgers to cattle. Veterinary Journal 1997; 153: 149162.
7. Pain, BF et al. Effects of cow slurry on the herbage production, intake by cattle and grazing behaviour. Journal of British Grassland Society 1974; 29: 8591.
8. Broom, DM, et al. The effects of slurry on the acceptability of swards to grazing cattle. Journal of Agriculture Science 1975; 85: 331336.
9. Pain, BF, Broom, DM. The effects of injected and surface spread slurry on the intake and grazing behaviour of dairy cows. Animal Production 1978; 26: 7583.
10. Hart, BL. Behavioral adaptations to pathogens and parasites – 5 strategies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 1990; 14: 273294.
11. Lozano, GA. Optimal foraging theory – a possible role for parasites. Oikos 1991; 60: 391395.
12. Michel, JF. Parasitological significance of bovine grazing behaviour. Nature 1955; 175: 10881089.
13. Hutchings, MR, Kyriazakis, I, Gordon, IJ. Herbivore physiological state affects foraging trade-off decisions between nutrient intake and parasite avoidance. Ecology 2001; 82: 11381150.
14. Crawley, MJ, et al. Vegetation and sheep population dynamics. In: Clutton-Brock, T, Pemberton, J eds. Soay Sheep: Dynamics and Selection in an Island Population. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 89112.
15. Haynes, RJ, Williams, PH. Nutrient cycling and soil fertility in the grazed pasture ecosystem. Advances in Agronomy 1993; 49: 119199.
16. Hutchings, MR, et al. The herbivores' dilemma: trade-offs between nutrition and parasitism in foraging decisions. Oecologia 2000; 124: 242251.
17. Muirhead, RH, Gallagher, J, Burn, KJ. Tuberculosis in wild badgers in Gloucestershire – epidemiology. Veterinary Record 1974; 95: 552555.
18. Daniels, MJ, et al. The grazing response of cattle to pasture contaminated with rabbit faeces and the implications for the transmission of paratuberculosis. Veterinary Journal 2001; 161: 306313.
19. Judge, J, et al. Ingestion of faeces by grazing herbivores – risk of inter-species disease transmission. Agriculture Ecosystem & Environment 2005; 107: 267274.
20. Sneddon, IA. Latrine use by the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Journal of Mammalogy 1991; 72: 769775.
21. Hutchings, MR, Service, KM, Harris, S. Defecation and urination patterns of badgers Meles meles at low density in south west England. Acta Theriologica 2001; 46: 8796.
22. Smith, LA, White, PCL, Hutchings, MR. Effect of the nutritional environment and reproductive investment on herbivore-parasite interactions in grazing environments. Behavioral Ecology 2006; 17: 591596.
23. Cordia, H, et al. Effect of rotational grazing systems on gastrointestinal nematodes in beef yearlings. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1964; 25: 14731478.
24. Kunkel, JR, Murphy, WM. Effect of stocking rate, grazing system, and fenbendazole treatment on subclinical parasitism in dairy heifers. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1988; 49: 724727.
25. Scantlebury, M, et al. Risk of disease from wildlife reservoirs: badgers, cattle, and bovine tuberculosis. Journal of Dairy Science 2004; 87: 330339.
26. Marion, G, Swain, DL, Hutchings, MR. Understanding foraging behaviour in spatially heterogeneous environments. Journal of Theoretical Biology 2005; 232: 127142.
27. Swain, DL, Hutchings, MR, Marion, G. Using a spatially explicit model to understand the impact of search rate and search distance on spatial heterogeneity within a grazing system. Ecological Modelling 2007; 203: 319326.
28. Marion, G, et al. Agent-based modelling of the impact of foraging behaviour on disease risks from faeces in spatially heterogeneous grazing-systems. Journal of Agricultural Science 2008; 146: 507520.
29. Bazely, DR. Rules and cues used by sheep foraging monocultures. In: Hughes, H eds. Behavioural Mechanism of Food Selection. London: Springer, 1990, pp. 343367.
30. Phillips, CJC. Cattle Behaviour. Ipswich, UK: Farming Press Books, 1993.
31. Renshaw, E. Modelling Biological Populations in Space and Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
32. Lazo, A, Soriguer, RC. Size-biased foraging behavior in Feral Cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1993; 36: 99110.
33. Hutchings, MR, et al. Grazing in heterogeneous environments: infra- and supra-parasite distributions determine herbivore grazing decisions. Oecologia 2002; 132: 453460.
34. King, EJ, Lovell, DJ, Harris, S. Effect of climate on the survival of Mycobacterium bovis and its transmission to cattle herds in south-west Britain. In: Cowen, DP, Feare, CJ eds. Advances in Vertebrate Pest Management. Furth, Germany: Filander Verlag, 1999, pp. 147162.
35. Daniels, MJ, et al. Do non-ruminant wildlife pose a risk of paratuberculosis to domestic livestock and vice versa in Scotland? Journal of Wildlife Diseases 2003; 39: 1015.
36. Familton, AS, McAnulty, RW. Life cycles and developments of nematode parasites of ruminants. In: Barrel, G eds. Sustainable Control of Internal Parasites in Ruminants. Lincoln: Lincoln University, 1997, pp. 6779.
37. Bates, KM, et al. Potential for cross-transmission of Dictyocaulus viviparus between cattle and white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 2000; 36: 774778.
38. Johnson, M, et al. Dictyocaulus species: cross infection between cattle and red deer. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2003; 51: 9398.

Keywords

Inter- and intra-specific exposure to parasites and pathogens via the faecal–oral route: a consequence of behaviour in a patchy environment

  • L. A. SMITH (a1), G. MARION (a2), D. L. SWAIN (a3), P. C. L. WHITE (a4) and M. R. HUTCHINGS (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed