1. Simonsen, L, et al. Pandemic versus epidemic influenza mortality: a pattern of changing age distribution. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1998; 178: 53–60.
2. Barker, WH, Mullooly, JP. Underestimation of the role of pneumonia and influenza in causing excess mortality. American Journal of Public Health 1981; 71: 643–645.
3. Lui, KJ, Kendal, AP. Impact of influenza epidemics on mortality in the United States from October 1972 to May 1985. American Journal of Public Health 1987; 77: 712–716.
4. Simonsen, L, et al. The impact of influenza epidemics on mortality: introducing a severity index. American Journal of Public Health 1997; 87: 1944–1950.
5. Simonsen, L, et al. A method for timely assessment of influenza-associated mortality in the United States. Epidemiology 1997; 8: 390–395.
6. Schopflocher, DP, et al. Pandemic influenza planning: using the U.S. Centres for Disease Control FluAid software for Small Area Estimation in the Canadian Context. Annals of Epidemiology 2004; 14: 73–76.
7. Thompson, WW, et al. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 289: 179–186.
8. Serfling, RE. Methods for current statistical analysis of excess pneumonia-influenza deaths. Public Health Reports 1963; 78: 494–506.
9. Simonsen, L, et al. Estimating deaths due to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 289: 2499–2500.
10. Sprenger, MJ, et al. Impact of influenza on mortality in relation to age and underlying disease, 1967–1989. International Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 22: 334–340.
11. Baltussen, RMPM, et al. Estimating influenza-related hospitalizations in the Netherlands. Epidemiology and Infection 1998; 121: 129–138.
12. Scuffham, PA. Estimating influenza-related hospital admissions in older people from GP consultation data. Vaccine 2003; 22: 2853–2862.
13. Clifford, RE, et al. Excess mortality associated with influenza in England and Wales. International Journal of Epidemiology 1977; 6: 115–128.
14. Fleming, DM, Cross, KW, Pannell, RS. Influenza and its Relationship to Circulatory Disorders. Epidemiology and Infection 2004; 133: 255–262.
15. Statistics Canada. Causes of Death, 1999 (Catalogue 84F0208XPB). Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, 2002.
16. World Health Organization. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Deaths, Based on Recommendations of the Ninth Revision Conference, 1975. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1977.
17. Statistics Canada. Annual Demographic Statistics 2000 (Catalogue 91-213-XIB). Demography Division, Ottawa, 2003.
18. Li, Y. 1999–2000 Influenza season: Canadian laboratory diagnoses and strain characterization. Canadian Communicable Disease Reports 2000; 26: 185–189.
19. SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STAT® 9 User's Guide, Volumes 1, 2, 3, Cary, NC, SAS Institute Inc., 2002.
20. Reichert, TA, et al. Influenza and the winter increase in mortality in the United States, 1959–1999. American Journal of Epidemiology 2004; 160: 492–501.
21. Bhat, N, et al. Influenza-associated deaths among children in the United States, 2003–2004. New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 353: 2559–2567.