Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The influence of operating conditions of activated-sludge treatment on the behaviour of f2 coliphage

  • S. A. Balluz (a1) and M. Butler (a1)

Summary

The behaviour of f2 coliphage during activated-sludge treatment was influenced by the temperature, flow-through-time, concentration of mixed liquor suspended solids and the virus load.

The most sensitive way to detect behavioural changes was to examine the regression coefficients for the rate of uptake or loss of virus by the mixed liquor solids. This type of analysis revealed, for instance, high values when the solids concentration was high and even greater values occured when high inocula were used. At high temperature the rate of loss of virus titre after inoculation had stopped was greater than the rate of uptake of virus during inoculation although in all other conditions uptake occurred at a greater rate than the loss of virus. The coefficients were relatively low when the flow rate was increased, when the temperature was low or when the inoculum was small.

The distribution of virus between the solids and liquid fractions of the mixed liquor varied somewhat for all conditions but was notably different when (a) the plant was incubated at 5 °C when there was much less virus in the solids fraction than usual, and (b) when the inoculum was low and a much higher proportion of virus was found in the solids.

The efficiency with which virus was removed across the plant was the least-sensitive determinant of viral behaviour and the value was about the same for most treatment conditions. However, low or high inocula did result in some increased or decreased removal of virus, respectively.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The influence of operating conditions of activated-sludge treatment on the behaviour of f2 coliphage
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The influence of operating conditions of activated-sludge treatment on the behaviour of f2 coliphage
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The influence of operating conditions of activated-sludge treatment on the behaviour of f2 coliphage
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Balluz, S. A. (1977). The behaviour of viruses in activated sludge treatment. PhD. thesis, University of Surrey.
Balluz, S. A., Butler, M. & Jones, H. H. (1978). The behaviour of f2 coliphage in activated sludge treatment. Journal of Hygiene 80, 237–42.
Balluz, S. A., Jones, H. H. & Butler, M. (1977). The persistence of poliovirus in activated sludge treatment. Journal of Hygiene 78, 165–73.
Curds, C. R. & Fey, G. J. (1969). The effect of ciliated protozoa on the fate of E. coli in the activated sludge process. Water Research 3, 853–67.
Kott, Y., Roze, N., Sperber, S. & Betzer, N. (1974). Bacteriophages as viral pollution indicators. Water Research 8, 165–71.
Loveday, R. (1975). Statistics; 2nd ed.of Second Course in Statistics. Cambridge University Press.
Malina, J. F. Jr, Ranganathan, K. R., Sagik, B. P. & Moore, B. E. (1975). Poliovirus inactivation by activated sludge. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 47, 2173–83.
Marshall, K. C. (1976). Interfaces in Microbial Ecology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Metcalf, T. G. (1971). Biological parameters in water transmission of viruses. In Proceedings of the 13th Water Quality Conference (Ed. Snoeyink, V., and Griffin, V.) Urbana: University of Illinois.
Smedberg, C. T. & Cannon, R. E. (1977). Cyanophage analysis as a biological pollution indicator – bacterial and viral. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 48, 2416–26.
Treybal, R. E. (1968). Mass Transfer Operations, 2nd ed.Kogakusha: McGraw-Hill.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed