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Incidence and risk factors for Dengue virus (DENV) infection in the first 2 years of life in a Brazilian prospective birth cohort

  • P. M. S. CASTANHA (a1) (a2), U. R. MONTARROYOS (a2), S. M. M. SILVEIRA (a3), G. D. M. ALBUQUERQUE (a1), M. J. G. MELLO (a3), K. G. S. LOPES (a1), M. T. CORDEIRO (a1), E. T. A. MARQUES (a1) (a4) (a5), C. M. T. MARTELLI (a1) and C. BRAGA (a1) (a3)...

Summary

This study assessed the incidence and risk factors for dengue virus (DENV) infection among children in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the city of Recife, a hyperendemic dengue area in Northeast Brazil. Healthy pregnant women (n = 415) residing in Recife who agreed to have their children followed were enrolled. Children were followed during their first 24 months of age (May/2011–June/2014), before the 2015 Zika virus outbreak. DENV infection was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and/or serology (anti-DENV IgM/IgG). The incidence rates per 1000 person-years (py) and its association with risk factors by age bands (0–12, >12–30 months) were estimated through Poisson regression models. Forty-nine dengue infections were detected; none progressed to severe forms. The incidence rates were 107·6/1000py (95% CI 76·8–150·6) and 93·3/1000py (95% CI 56·1–154·4) in the first and second years of age, respectively. Male children (risk ratios (RR) = 2·33; 95% CI 1·09–4·98) and those born to DENV-naïve mothers (RR = 2·42; 95% CI 1·01–5·80) were at greater risk of infection in the first year of age. In the second year, children born to Caucasian/Asian descent skin colour mothers had a threefold higher risk of infection (RR = 3·34; 95% CI: 1·08–10·33). These data show the high exposure of children to DENV infection in our setting and highlight the role of biological factors in this population's susceptibility to infection.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: P. M. S. Castanha, Aggeu Magalhães Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, s/n, Campus da UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. (Email: castanha.priscila@gmail.com)

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