World Health Organization.Hepatitis C – global prevalence (update). Weekly Epidemiological Record
1999; 74: 425–427.
Harris, HE, Ramsay, MEB (eds).Hepatitis C in the UK: the Health Protection Agency Annual Report 2008. London: Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 2008.
Harris, HE, Ramsay, MEB (eds).Hepatitis C in the UK: 2009 report. London: Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 2009.
Sweeting, MJ, et al.
The burden of hepatitis C in England. Journal of Viral Hepatitis
2007; 14: 570–576.
McHutchison, JG, et al.
Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. New England Journal of Medicine
1998; 339: 1485–1492.
Poynard, T, et al.
Randomised trial of interferon alpha2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon alpha2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. Lancet
1998; 352: 1426–1432.
Manns, MP, et al.
Peg-interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with inteferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomized trial. Lancet
2001; 358: 958–965.
Fried, MW, et al.
Peg-interferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. New England Journal Medicine
2002; 347: 975–982.
NICE. TA200 Peg-interferon alfa and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Part review of NICE technology appraisal guidance 75 and 106 (http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13180/50856/50856.pdf). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2010. Accessed 1 October 2010.
Zeuzem, S. Heterogeneous virological response rates to interferon-based therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C: who responds less well?
Annals of Internal Medicine
2004; 140: 370–381.
Saracco, G, et al.
A randomized 4-arm multicenter study of interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C relapsing after interferon monotherapy. Hepatology
2002; 36: 959–966.
Myers, RP, Poynard, T. Interferon for interferon nonresponding and relapsing patients with chronic hepatitis C. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
2002, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003617. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003617.
Cheng, SJ, et al.
Interferon and Ribavirin for patients with chronic hepatitis C who did not respond to previous interferon therapy: a meta-analysis of controlled and uncontrolled trials. Hepatology
2001; 33: 231–240.
Poynard, T, et al.
Is an ‘a la carte’ combination interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin regimen possible for the first line treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C?
2000; 31: 211–218.
Wright, TL. Treatment of patients with hepatitis C and cirrhosis. Hepatology
2002; 36: S185–S194.
Bressler, BL, et al.
High body mass index is an independent risk factor for nonresponse to antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology
2003; 38: 639–644.
Foster, GR, et al.
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C with peg-interferon alfa 2a (40 kD) (PEGASYS®) and ribavirin (COPEGUS®): patient age has a marked influence on the individual estimated probability of achieving a sustained virological response. Hepatology
2003; 38: 246A.
Harris, HE, et al.
The HCV National Register: towards informing the natural history of hepatitis C infection in the UK. Journal of Viral Hepatitis
2000; 7: 420–427.
Department of Health. Units and you.  2008, Crown copyright. Produced by COI for the Department of Health.
Jaeckel, E, et al.
Treatment of acute hepatitis C with interferon alfa-2b. New England Journal of Medicine
2001; 345: 1452–1457.
Sweeting, MJ, et al.
Estimated progression rates in three United Kingdom hepatitis C cohorts differed according to method of recruitment. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
2006; 59: 144–152.
Kenny-Walsh, E. Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. New England Journal of Medicine
1999; 340: 1228–1233.
Dittmann, S, et al.
Long-term persistence of hepatitis C virus antibodies in a single source outbreak. Journal of Hepatology
1991; 13: 323–327.
Botting, B, Reilly, H, Harris, D. Use of Office of Population Censuses and Surveys records in medical research and clinical audit. Health Trends
1995; 27: 4–7.
Thoman, ML. The pattern of T lymphocyte differentiation is altered during thymic involution. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
1995; 82: 155–170.
Timm, JA, Thoman, ML. Maturation of CD4+ lymphocytes in the aged microenvironment results in a memory-enriched population. Journal of Immunology
1999; 162: 711–717.
Ouyang, Q, et al.
Reduced IFN-gamma production in elderly people following in vitro stimulation with influenza vaccine and endotoxin. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
2000; 121: 131–137.
Hoare, M, et al.
CD4+ T-lymphocyte telomere length is related to fibrosis stage, clinical outcome and treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Journal of Hepatology
2010; 53: 252–260.
Soldan, K, et al.
The contribution of transfusion to HCV infection in England. Epidemiology and Infection
2002; 129: 587–591.
Kleinman, S, et al.
Survival after transfusion as assessed in a large multistate US cohort. Transfusion
2004; 44: 386–390.
Hadziyannis, SJ, et al.
Peg interferon-alfa2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C. A randomised study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Annals of Internal Medicine
2004; 140: 346–355.
Poynard, T, et al.
Impact of Interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin on progression of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology
2000; 32: 1131–1137.
Antonucci, G, et al.
The Effect of age on response to therapy with pegylated alpha plus ribavirin in a cohort of patients with chronic HCV hepatitis including subjects older than 65 years. American Journal of Gastroenterology
2007; 102: 1383–1391.
Health Technology Assessment. Pegylated interferon-2a and -2b in combination with ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Vol. 8, No. 39, 2004.
Health Technology Assessment. Health benefits of antiviral therapy for mild chronic hepatitis C: randomised control trial and economic evaluation. Vol. 10, No. 21, 2006.
Honda, T, et al.
Efficacy of ribavirin plus interferon- alpha in patients aged ⩾60 years with chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
2007; 22: 989–995.
Iwasaki, Y, et al.
Limitation of combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin for older patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology
2006; 43: 54–63.