1.Dye, C, et al. Consensus Statement. Global burden of turberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence and mortality by country. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 282: 677–686.
2.Ferebee, SH, et al. Controlled trial of Isoniazid prophylaxis in mental institutions. American Journal of Respiratory Diseases 1963; 88: 161–175.
3.Ehlers, S. Lazy, dynamic or minimally recrudescent? On the elusive nature and location of the mycobacterium responsible for latent tuberculosis. Infection 2009; 37: 87–95.
4.Cooper, AM, Khader, SA. The role of cytokines in the initiation, expansion, and control of cellular immunity to tuberculosis. Immunology Reviews 2008; 226: 191–204.
5.Hussain, R, et al. Longitudinal tracking of cytokines after acute exposure to tuberculosis: association of distinct cytokine patterns with protection and disease development. Clinical Vaccine Immunology 2007; 14: 1578–1586.
6.Demissie, A, et al. The 6-kilodalton early secreted antigenic target-responsive, asymptomatic contacts of tuberculosis patients express elevated levels of interleukin-4 and reduced levels of gamma interferon. Infection & Immunity 2006; 74: 2817–2822.
7.Torrado, E, Cooper, AM. IL-17 and Th17 cells in tuberculosis. Cytokine Growth Factor Reviews 2010; 21: 455–462.
8.Tsegaye, A, et al. Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocytes at birth, during childhood, and during adulthood in HIV-1-uninfected Ethiopians. Clinical Immunology 2003; 109: 338–346.
9.Black, GF, et al. BCG-induced increase in interferon-gamma response to mycobacterial antigens and efficacy of BCG vaccination in Malawi and the UK: two randomised controlled studies. Lancet 2002; 359: 1393–1401.
10.Lalor, MK, et al. BCG vaccination induces different cytokine profiles following infant BCG vaccination in the UK and Malawi. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2011; 204: 1075–1085.
11.Rook, GA, Dheda, K, Zumla, A. Immune systems in developed and developing countries; implications for the design of vaccines that will work where BCG does not. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 2006; 86: 152–162.
12.Esmail, H, Barry, CE 3rd, Wilkinson, RJ. Understanding latent tuberculosis: the key to improved diagnostic and novel treatment strategies. Drug Discovery Today 2012; 17: 514–521.
13.Rook, GA, Dheda, K, Zumla, A. Do successful tuberculosis vaccines need to be immunoregulatory rather than merely Th1-boosting? Vaccine 2005; 23: 2115–2120.
14.Perry, S, Hussain, R, Parsonnet, J. The impact of mucosal infections on acquisition and progression of tuberculosis. Mucosal Immunology 2011; 4: 246–251.
15.Perry, S, de Martel, C, Parsonnet, J. Helicobacter pylori. In: Brachman, PS, Brutyn, EA, eds. Bacterial Infections of Humans, 4th edn.New York: Springer, 2009.
16.D'Elios, MM, et al. Helicobacter pylori, T cells and cytokines: the ‘dangerous liaisons’. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 2005; 44: 113–119.
17.Perry, S, et al. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with protection against tuberculosis. PLoS One 2010; 5: 1–9.e8804.
18.Hotez, PJ, et al. Helminth infections: the great neglected tropical diseases. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2008; 118: 1311–1321.
19.Maizels, RM, Yazdanbakhsh, M. Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Nature Reviews Immunology 2003; 3: 733–744.
20.Cooper, PJ, et al. Human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides is associated with suppression of the interleukin-2 response to recombinant cholera toxin B subunit following vaccination with the live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR. Infection & Immunity 2001; 69: 1574–1580.
21.Kassu, A, et al. Role of incidental and/or cured intestinal parasitic infections on profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets and activation status in HIV-1 infected and uninfected adult Ethiopians. Clinical & Experimental Immunology 2003; 132: 113–119.
22.Elias, D, et al. Poor immunogenicity of BCG in helminth infected population is associated with increased in vitro TGF-beta production. Vaccine 2008; 26: 3897–3902.
23.Fox, JG, et al. Concurrent enteric helminth infection modulates inflammation and gastric immune responses and reduces helicobacter-induced gastric atrophy. Nature Medicine 2000; 6: 536–542.
24.Erdman, SE, et al. Unifying roles for regulatory T cells and inflammation in cancer. International Journal of Cancer 2010; 126: 1651–1665.
25.Lundgren, A, et al. Helicobacter pylori-specific CD4+ CD25high regulatory T cells suppress memory T-cell responses to H. pylori in infected individuals. Infection & Immunity 2003; 71: 1755–1762.
26.Allen, JE, Maizels, RM. Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths. Nature Reviews Immunology 2011; 11: 375–388.
27.Maizels, RM. Infections and allergy – helminths, hygiene and host immune regulation. Current Opinions in Immunology 2005; 17: 656–661.
28.Blaser, MJ, Chen, Y, Reibman, J. Does Helicobacter pylori protect against asthma and allergy? Gut 2008; 57: 561–567.
29.Wills-Karp, M, Santeliz, J, Karp, CL. The germless theory of allergic disease: revisiting the hygiene hypothesis. Nature Reviews Immunology 2001; 1: 69–75.
30.Ricks, P, et al. Estimating the burden of tuberculosis among foreign born persons acquired prior to entering the U.S., 2005–2009. PLoS One 2011; 6: 1–6.
31.Perry, S, et al. Reproducibility of QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube assay. Clinical Vaccine Immunology 2008; 15: 425–432.
32.Replogle, ML, et al. Biologic sex as a risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection in healthy young adults. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 142: 856–863.
33.de Martel, C, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005; 191: 761–767.
34.Affifi, AA, Clark, V. Principal components analysis. In: Computer Aided Multivariate Analysis. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1990, pp. 371–393.
35.Agresti, A. An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis, 2nd edn.Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
36.Elias, D, Akuffo, H, Britton, S. Helminths could influence the outcome of vaccines against TB in the tropics. Parasite Immunology 2006; 28: 507–513.
37.Lalor, MK, et al. Population differences in immune responses to Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination in infancy. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009; 199: 795–800.
38.Lin, PL, Flynn, JL. Understanding latent tuberculosis: a moving target. Journal of Immunology 2010; 185: 15–22.
39.Black, GF, et al. Gamma interferon responses induced by a panel of recombinant and purified mycobacterial antigens in healthy, non-mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated Malawian young adults. Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 2003; 10: 602–611.
40.Garg, PK, et al. Risk of intestinal helminth and protozoan infection in a refugee population. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2005; 73: 386–391.
42.Herrera, V, et al. Clinical application and limitations of interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2011; 52: 1031–1037.
43.Cerf-Bensussan, N, Gaboriau-Routhiau, V. The immune system and the gut microbiota: friends or foes? Nature Reviews Immunology 2010; 10: 735–744.