Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

How do pig farms maintain low Salmonella prevalence: a case-control study

  • R. P. Smith (a1), V. Andres (a1), T. E. Cheney (a1), F. Martelli (a1), R. Gosling (a1), E. Marier (a2), A. Rabie (a1), D. Gilson (a1) and R. H. Davies (a1)...

Abstract

Salmonella prevalence in UK pigs is amongst the highest in Europe, highlighting the need to investigate pig farms which have managed to maintain a low Salmonella seroprevalence. A total of 19 pig farms that had a consistently low (<10%) seroprevalence over 4 years (named Platinum farms) were compared against 38 randomly selected Control farms, chosen to match the same distribution of production types and geographical distribution of the Platinum farms. Each farm was visited and floor faeces and environmental samples were collected. It was shown that Control farms had a significantly higher median percentage of pooled faecal samples positive for Salmonella compared with the Platinum farms (12.1% and 0.4% for pooled faecal samples, respectively) and were more likely to have serovars of public health importance detected (S. Typhimurium/ monophasic variants or S. Enteritidis). Considering the comprehensive on-farm sampling, the identification of farms negative for Salmonella, along with the identification of those that had maintained low prevalence over a long period is important. The risk factor analyses identified pelleted feed, feed deliveries crossing farm perimeter and regular antibiotic use as associated with being a Control farm. Performance data indicated that Platinum farms were performing better for slaughter live weight than Controls. Limited assessments of available pig movement records suggested that the source of pigs was not key to Platinum status, but further study would be needed to confirm this finding. These results emphasise that maintaining very low prevalence on UK farms is achievable.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      How do pig farms maintain low Salmonella prevalence: a case-control study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      How do pig farms maintain low Salmonella prevalence: a case-control study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      How do pig farms maintain low Salmonella prevalence: a case-control study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: R. P. Smith, E-mail: Richard.p.Smith@apha.gsi.gov.uk

References

Hide All
1.Majowicz, SE et al. (2010) International Collaboration on Enteric Disease ‘Burden of Illness’ studies. The global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 50, 882889.
2.EFSA/ECDC (2012) The European Union Summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2010. EFSA Journal 10, 2597.
3.EFSA (2015) The European Union Summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014. EFSA Journal 13, 4329.
4.Geue, L and Loschner, U (2002) Salmonella enterica in reptiles of German and Austrian origin. Veterinary Microbiology 84, 7991.
5.Simpson, VR (2002) Wild animals as reservoirs of infectious diseases in the UK. Veterinary Journal 163, 128146.
6.APHA (2013) Salmonella in Livestock Production in GB. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/salmonella-in-livestock-production-in-great-britain-2013. (Accessed 10 January 2017).
7.Powell, LF et al. (2016) A prevalence study of Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in UK pigs at slaughter. Epidemiology and Infection 144, 15381549.
8.Farzan, A and Friendship, RM (2010) A clinical field trial to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination in controlling Salmonella infection and the association of Salmonella-shedding and weight gain in pigs. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 74, 258263.
9.EFSA (2008) Report of the task force on zoonoses data collection on the analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in slaughter pigs, in the EU, 2006–2007 [1] – part A: Salmonella prevalence estimates. EFSA Journal 135, 1111.
10.Marier, EA et al. (2014) Abattoir based survey of Salmonella in finishing pigs in the United Kingdom 2006–2007. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 117, 542553.
11.Snary, EL et al. (2010) Zoonoses action plan Salmonella monitoring programme: an investigation of the sampling protocol. Journal of Food Protection 73, 488494.
12.Sorensen, LL et al. (2004) The correlation between Salmonella serology and isolation of Salmonella in Danish pigs at slaughter. Veterinary Microbiology 101, 131141.
13.Lo Fo Wong, DMA et al. (2004) Herd-level risk factors for subclinical Salmonella infection in European finishing-pig herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 62, 253266.
14.Henzler, DJ and Opitz, HM (1992) The role of mice in the epizootiology of Salmonella Enteritidis infection on chicken layer farms. Avian Diseases 36, 625631.
15.Muirhead, S (1993) House mice linked to persistence of salmonellosis on pig farms. Feedstuffs 65, 11.
16.Nollet, N et al. (2004) Risk factors for the herd-level bacteriologic prevalence of Salmonella in Belgian slaughter pigs. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 65, 6375.
17.Erdman, MM et al. (2005) Occurrence of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium DT104 on a commercial swine farm before, during, and after depopulation and repopulation. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227, 460466.
18.van der Heijden, M et al. (2005) Effectiveness of Salmonella control strategies in fattening pigs. In Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on the epidemiology and control of foodborne pathogens in pork, Rohnert park, California, USA.
19.van der Wolf, PJ et al. (2001) Herd level husbandry factors associated with the serological Salmonella prevalence in finishing pig herds in The Netherlands. Veterinary Microbiology 78, 205219.
20.Creus, E et al. (2007) Effect of acidified feed on the prevalence of Salmonella in market-age pigs. Zoonoses and Public Health 54, 314319.
21.Kranker, S, Dahl, J and Wingstrand, A (2001) Bacteriological and serological examination and risk factor analysis of Salmonella occurrence in sow herds, including risk factors for high Salmonella seroprevalence in receiver finishing herds. Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 114, 350352.
22.Papenbrock, S et al. (2005) Investigations on prophylactic effects of coarse feed structure and/or potassium diformate on the microflora in the digestive tract of weaned piglets experimentally infected with Salmonella derby. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 89, 8487.
23.Berends, BR et al. (1996) Identification and quantification of risk factors in animal management and transport regarding Salmonella spp. in pigs. International Journal of Food Microbiology 30, 3753.
24.Aperce, CC et al. (2010) Interaction of Bacillus species and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in immune or inflammatory signaling from swine intestinal epithelial cells. Journal of Animal Science 88, 16491656.
25.Letellier, A et al. (2000) Assessment of various treatments to reduce carriage of Salmonella in swine. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 64, 2731.
26.Beloeil, PA et al. (2004) Risk factors for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica shedding by market-age pigs in French farrow-to-finish herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 63, 103120.
27.Smith, RP et al. (2011) Investigating the association between gross pathological lesions and serological tests for Salmonella infection in pigs: an abattoir-based study. Veterinary Record 9, 168240.
28.Gotter, V et al. (2012) Main risk factors for Salmonella-infections in pigs in north-western Germany. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 106, 301307.
29.Martelli, F et al. (2018) Observations on the introduction and dissemination of Salmonella in three previously low prevalence status pig farms in the United Kingdom. Food Microbiology 71, 129134.
30.Arnold, ME et al. (2015) Evaluation of the sensitivity of faecal sampling for detection of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium and other Salmonella in cattle and pigs. Epidemiology and Infection 143, 16811691.
31.Grimont, PAD and Weill, FX (2007) Antigenic Formulae of the Salmonella Serovars. 9th Edn. Paris, France: WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Salmonella, Institut Pasteur.
32.Wilson, JS et al. (2003) Nontyphoidal salmonellae in United Kingdom badgers: prevalence and spatial distribution. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69, 43124315.
33.Fedorka-Cray, PJ, Gray, JT and Wray, C Salmonella infections in pigs. In Wray, C and Wray, A (eds) Salmonella in Domestic Animals. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 2000, pp. 191207.
34.Arnold, ME and Cook, AJC (2009) Estimation of sample sizes for pooled faecal sampling for detection of Salmonella in pigs. Epidemiology and Infection 137, 17341741.
35.Stark, KDC et al. (2002) Differences and similarities among experts’ opinions on Salmonella enterica dynamics in swine pre-harvest. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 53, 720.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Smith et al. supplementary material
Smith et al. supplementary material

 Word (558 KB)
558 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed