1. Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Department, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, and Scottish Centre for Infection & Environmental Health. Unpublished Quarterly Surveillance Tables No. 63, 04/2, July 2004.
2. The UK Collaborative Group for HIV and STI Surveillance. Mapping the Issues. HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United Kingdom in 2005. London: Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections. November 2005.
3. Dodds, JP, Mercey, DE. Sexual Health Survey of Gay Men – London 2003. Centre for Sexual Health & HIV Research, Department of Primary Care & Population Sciences, Royal Free & University College Medical School, 2004.
4. Hickson, F, et al. Out and about: findings from the United Kingdom Gay Men's Sex Survey 2002. Sigma Research, December 2003.
5. Elford, J, et al. Trends in sexual behaviour among London homosexual men 1998–2003: implications for HIV prevention and sexual health promotion. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2004; 80: 451–454.
6. Williamson, LM, Hart, GJ. HIV optimism does not explain increases in high risk sexual behaviour among gay men in Scotland. AIDS 2004; 18: 834–836.
7. Langmuir, AD. The surveillance of communicable diseases of national importance. New England Journal of Medicine 1963; 268: 182–192.
8. Hymes, K, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men: a report of 8 cases. Lancet 1981; ii: 598.
9. Gottlieb, MS, et al. Pneumocystis pneumonia – Los Angeles. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1981; 30: 250–252.
10. Du Bois, RM, et al. Primary pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus infection. Lancet 1981; ii: 1339.
11. Public Health Laboratory Service. Surveillance of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the United Kingdom, January 1982–July 1983. Communicable Disease Report 1983; 83: 3.
12. McEvoy, M, Tillett, HE. Some problems in the prediction of future numbers of cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the UK. Lancet 1985; ii: 541–542.
13. Public Health Laboratory Service. The surveillance of Kaposi's sarcoma and opportunistic infections in homosexual males in England and Wales. Communicable Disease Report 1982; 82: 3–4.
14. O'Connor, BH, McEvoy, MB, Galbraith, NS. Kaposi's sarcoma/AIDS surveillance in the UK. Lancet 1983; i: 872.
15. Centers for Disease Control. Update of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) – United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1982; 31: 507–508, 513–514.
16. Ancelle-Park, RA. European AIDS definition. Lancet 1992; 339: 671.
17. Public Health Laboratory Service. Case definitions for AIDS – Europe and the United States part company. Communicable Disease Report. CDR Weekly 1993; 3: 1.
18. Public Health Laboratory Service. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, United Kingdom: May 1985. Communicable Disease Report 1985; 85: 3–4.
19. Goldberg, DJ, et al. and collaborating microbiologists. A system for surveillance of voluntary HIV testing; results of the first two years, 1989–1990. AIDS 1992; 6: 495–500.
20. Cheingsong-Popov, R, et al. Prevalence of antibody to Human T-lymphotropic virus type III in AIDS and AIDS-risk patients in Britain. Lancet 1984; ii: 477–480.
21. Mortimer, PP, et al. Prevalence of antibody to human T lymphotropic virus type III by risk group and area, United Kingdom 1978–1984. British Medical Journal 1985; 290: 1176–1178.
22. Jesson, WJ, et al. Prevalence of anti-HTLV-III in UK risk groups 1984/85. Lancet 1986; i: 155.
23. Carne, CA, et al. Rising prevalence of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type III (HTLV-III) infection among homosexual men in London. Lancet 1985; i: 1261–1262.
24. Loveday, C, et al. Human immunodeficiency viruses in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in London, 1982–7. British Medical Journal 1989; 298: 419–422.
25. Department of Health, The Welsh Office. Short-term Prediction of HIV Infection and AIDS in England and Wales. Report of a Working Group. London: HMSO, 1988.
26. Weller, IVD, Hindley, DJ, Adler, MW. Gonorrhoea in homosexual men and media coverage of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in London 1982–3. British Medical Journal 1984; 289: 1041.
27. Weber, JN, et al. Three-year prospective study of HTLV-III/LAV infection in homosexual men. Lancet 1986; i: 1179–1182.
28. Carne, CA, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, gonorrhoea rates, and changed sexual behaviour in homosexual men in London. Lancet 1987; i: 656–658.
29. Gill, ON, Alder, MW, Day, NE. Monitoring the prevalence of HIV: foundations for a programme of unlinked anonymous testing in England and Wales. British Medical Journal 1989; 299: 1295–1298.
30. Department of Health. Press release: ‘Government announces new steps to monitor the spread of HIV infection’, 23 November 1988.
31. Catchpole, MA, et al. Serosurveillance of prevalence of undiagnosed HIV-1 infection in homosexual men with acute sexually transmitted infection. British Medical Journal 2000; 321: 1319–1320.
32. Simms, I, et al. on behalf of the collaborative group. Trends in undiagnosed HIV-1 infection among attenders at genitourinary medicine clinics, England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990–6. Sexually Transmitted Infections 1999; 75: 332–336.
33. Department of Health. The National Strategy for Sexual Health and HIV. London: Department of Health, 2001.
35. Hickson, F. Community HIV & AIDS Prevention Strategy. Making it count: a theory, ethics and evidence based health promotion strategy to reduce the incidence of HIV infection through sex between men in England. Sigma Research, March 1998.
36. Hickson, F, et al. Making it count: a collaborative planning framework to reduce the incidence of HIV infection during sex between men. London: Sigma Research, Terence Higgins Trust. Published on behalf of the CHAPS Partnership, 2nd edn, September 2002.
37. The UK Collaborative Group for HIV and STI Surveillance. Focus on Prevention. HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United Kingdom in 2003. London: Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections. November 2004.
38. Macdonald, N, et al. Recent trends in diagnoses of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in England and Wales amongst men who have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2004; 80: 492–497.
39. Dougan, S, et al. Does the recent increase in HIV diagnoses among MSM in the UK reflect a rise in HIV incidence or increased uptake of HIV testing? Sexually Transmitted Infections 2007; 83: 120–125.
40. Gupta, SB, et al. on behalf of the CD4 Surveillance Scheme Advisory Group. CD4 cell counts in adults with newly diagnosed HIV infection: results of surveillance in England and Wales, 1990–1998. AIDS 2000; 14: 853–861.
41. Chadborn, TR, et al. No time to wait: how many HIV-infected homosexual men are diagnosed late and consequently die? (England and Wales, 1993–2002. AIDS 2005; 19: 513–520.
42. Weatherburn, P, et al. HIV testing for African people and MSM: comparing needs, access and effectiveness in clinic and community settings in a UK city. Annual Conference of the British HIV Association, Brighton, UK, 29 March–1 April 2006, HIV Medicine 2006; 7 (Suppl. 1): 32 (P82).
43. Prost, A, et al. ‘There is such a thing as asking for trouble’: taking rapid HIV testing to gay venues is fraught with challenges. Sexually Transmitted Infections. Published online: 17 January 2007.
44. Day, NE, et al. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in England and Wales to end 1993: projections using data to end September 1989. Report of a working group convened by the Director of the Public Health Laboratory Service. Communicable Disease Report, January 1990 (Suppl. 1): 1–12.
45. Rees, M. Short-term prediction of HIV infection and AIDS: a critique of the Working Group's Report to the Department of Health. Inernational Journal of STD & AIDS 1990; 1: 10–17.
46. Petruckevitch, A, et al. Direct estimates of prevalent HIV infection in adults in England and Wales for 1991 and 1993: an improved method. Genitourinary Medicine 1997; 73: 348–354.
47. McGarrigle, CA, et al. Estimating adult HIV prevalence in the UK in 2003. The direct method of estimation. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2006; 82: iii78–iii86.
48. Public Health Laboratory Service. Adult HIV prevalence in the United Kingdom, 2000: estimated using the ‘direct’ method. Communicable Disease Report (CDR) Weekly 2002; 12 (5).
49. Goubar, A, et al. Bayesian multi-parameter synthesis of HIV surveillance data in England and Wales, 2001. London: Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, Technical Report, March 2006.
50. Imrie, J, et al. United Kingdom. In: Dealing with the HIV Pandemic in the 21st Century: Health Systems’ Responses Past, Present and Future. Oxford University Press, 2006.
51. Aalen, OO, et al. New therapy explains the fall in AIDS incidence with a substantial rise in number of persons on treatment expected. AIDS 1999; 13: 103–108.
52. Mocroft, A, et al. AIDS across Europe, 1994–98: the EuroSIDA study. Lancet 2000; 356: 291–296.
53. Mocroft, A, et al. Changes in the cause of death among HIV positive subjects across Europe: results from the EuroSIDA study. AIDS 2002; 16: 1663–1671.
54. Mocroft, A, et al. Changes in AIDS-defining illnesses in a London clinic, 1987–1998. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 1999; 21: 401–407.
55. Ives, NJ, Gazzard, BG, Easterbrook, PJ. The changing pattern of AIDS-defining illnesses with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a London clinic. Journal of Infection 2001; 42: 134–139.
56. Public Health Laboratory Service, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. Enhancement of HIV infection reporting. Communicable Disease Report (CDR) Weekly 2000; 10: 1, 4.
57. Dougan, S, et al. The epidemiology of HIV among black and minority ethnic men who have sex with men in England and Wales. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2005; 81: 345–350.
58. Dougan, S, et al. Men who have sex with men who are born abroad and diagnosed with HIV in England and Wales: an epidemiological perspective. International Journal of STD and AIDS 2005; 16: 618–621.
59. Gilbart, VG, Evans, BG, Dougan, S. HIV transmission among men who have sex with men through oral sex [Letter]. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2004; 80: 324.
60. EuroHIV. HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe. Mid-year report 2005. Saint-Maurice: Institut de Veille Sanitaire, 2006. No. 72.
61. Public Health Laboratory Service. The surveillance of HIV-1 infection and AIDS in England and Wales. Communicable Disease Report. CDR Review 1991; 1 (5): R51–56.
62. McCormick, A. Unrecognised HIV related deaths. British Medical Journal 1991; 302: 1365–1367.
63. McCormick, A. Trends in mortality statistics in England and Wales with particular reference to AIDS from 1984 to April 1987. British Medical Journal 1998; 296: 1289–1292.
64. Nylén, G, et al. Mortality in young adults in England and Wales: the impact of the HIV epidemic. AIDS 1999; 13: 1535–1541.
65. Josh Forde, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections. Personal communication.
66. Ciancio, BC, et al. Trends in mortality and causes of death among HIV-infected individuals diagnosed in the UK: 1993–2004. XVI International AIDS Conference, Toronto, Canada, 13–18 August 2006.
67. British HIV Association (BHIVA). Mortality Audit 2006. BHIVA, October 2006 (www.bhiva.org).
68. Molesworth, A. Results from the 1995 survey of prevalent clinically diagnosed HIV infection in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Communicable Disease Report. CDR Review 1997; 7: R77–82.
69. Parpia, T, et al. The effect of combination therapy on immunological progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease at a population level. American Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 153: 898–902.
70. Redman, C, et al. Infectious syphilis in Scotland: the implementation of a new surveillance system. SCIEH Weekly Report 2003/02; 37: 6–7.
71. Righarts, AA, et al. Syphilis surveillance and epidemiology in the United Kingdom. Eurosurveillance Monthly 2004; 9: 21–25.
72. Health Protection Agency. Enhanced surveillance of lymphogranuloma venereum in England. Communicable Disease Report 2004; 14.
73. Browne, R, et al. Increased numbers of acute hepatitis C infections in HIV positive homosexual men; is sexual transmission feeding the increase? Sexually Transmitted Infections 2004; 80: 326–327.
74. Health Protection Agency. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei phage type Q in men who have sex with men (MSM) in London. Communicable Disease Report 2004; 14 (43).
75. Health Protection Agency. Outbreak of Hepatitis A in men who have sex with men in south east London. Communicable Disease Report 2004; 14 (45).
76. Dodds, JP, et al. Increasing risk behaviour and high levels of undiagnosed HIV infection in a community sample of homosexual men. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2004; 80: 236–240.
77. Reid, D, et al. On the Move: Findings from the United Kingdom's Gay Men's Sex Survey 2003. Sigma Research, London, December 2004.
78. Hart, GJ, Williamson, LM. Increase in HIV sexual risk behaviour in gay men in Scotland, 1996–2002: Prevention failure. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2005; 81: 367–372.
79. Elford, J, et al. High-risk sexual behaviour among London gay men: no longer increasing. AIDS 2005; 19: 2171–2174.
80. Wallace, LA. Syphilis in Scotland 2003. SCIEH Weekly Report 2004/07; 38: 38–39.
81. Simms, I, et al. The re-emergence of syphilis in the UK: the new epidemic phases. Sexually Transmitted Disease 2005; 32: 220–226.
82. Nicoll, A, et al. Assessing the impact of national anti-HIV sexual health campaigns: trends in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in England. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2001; 77: 242–247.
83. Gellan, MCA, Ison, CA. Declining incidence of gonorrhoea in London: a response to fear of AIDS? Lancet 1986; i: 656–658.
84. Miller, E, et al. Incidence of HIV infection in homosexual men in London, 1988–1994. British Medical Journal 1995; 311: 545.
85. Goldberg, D, et al. HIV infection among homosexual/bisexual males attending genito-urinary medicine clinics in Scotland. Sexually Transmitted Infections 1998; 74: 185–188.
86. Janssen, RS, et al. New testing strategy to detect early HIV-1 infection for use in incidence estimates and for clinical and prevention purposes. Journal of the American Medical Association 1998; 280: 42–48.
87. Murphy, G, et al. HIV incidence appears constant in men who have sex with men despite widespread use of effective antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2004; 18: 265–272.
88. Murphy, G, et al. Is HIV incidence increasing in homo/bisexual men attending STI clinics in England, Wales and Northern Ireland? Commuicable Disease and Public Health 2004; 7: 11–14.
89. Dukers, NTM, et al. HIV incidence on the increase among homosexual men attending an Amsterdam sexually transmitted disease clinic: using a novel approach for detecting recent infections. AIDS 2002; 16: F19–F24.
90. UK Collaborative Group on Transmission of HIV Resistance in Primary Infections. Analysis of prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in primary infections in the United Kingdom. British Medical Journal 2001; 322: 1087–1088.
91. UK Group on Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance. Time trends in primary resistance to HIV drugs in the United Kingdom: multicentre observational study. British Medical Journal 2005; 331: 1368.
92. Health Protection Agency. HIV Drug Resistance in the United Kingdom: data to end of 2004. Communicable Disease Report 2006; 16 (4).
93. Elam, G, et al. Intentional and unintentional UAI among gay men who HIV test in the UK: qualitative results from an investigation into risk factors for seroconversion among gay men who HIV test (INSIGHT). HIV Medical Journal (Suppl. 1), Abstract 027, 2006.
94. Dougan, S, Evans, BG, Elford, J. Sexually transmitted infections in Western Europe among HIV positive men who have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Disease 2007 (in press).