Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Hand carriage of aerobic Gram-negative rods by health care personnel

  • Brian G. Adams (a1) and Thomas J. Marrie (a1)

Summary

A quantitative culture technique (hand washed in a glove containing broth for 30 s) was used to determine the frequency of hand carriage of aerobic Gram-negative rods by various groups of health care workers and 104 control subjects. Overall, 31 % of health care workers carried aerobic Gram-negative rods on their hands compared to 59% of control subjects (P < 0.001). Enterobacter agglomerans accounted for 40% of the isolates, and other Enterobacter spp. 7%. Other organisms included Acinetobacter calcoaceticus 21 %, Serratia spp. 11%, Klebsiella spp. 10%, Moraxella spp. 3%, Pseudomonas spp. 3%, Proteus spp. 1.5%, Escherichia coli 1%; Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Aeromonas sp. and an isolate that was not speciated accounted for 0.5% each. We conclude that endemic hand carriage of aerobic Gram-negative rods by health care personnel is common, but significantly less than that of control subjects. Enterobacter agglomerans is found so frequently on the hands of control subjects that it must be considered part of the normal hand flora.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Hand carriage of aerobic Gram-negative rods by health care personnel
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Hand carriage of aerobic Gram-negative rods by health care personnel
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Hand carriage of aerobic Gram-negative rods by health care personnel
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Ayliffe, G. A. J., Babb, J. R., Taylor, L. & Wise, R. (1979). A source and protective isolation in a general hospital. British Medical Journal ii, 461465.
Brown, D. G. & Baublis, J. (1977). Reservoirs of Pseudomonas in an intensive care unit for newborn infants: mechanisms of control. Journal of Pediatrics 90, 453457.
Bruun, J. N. & Solberg, C. O. (1973). Hand carriage of Gram -negative bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus. British Medical Journal ii, 580582.
Buxton, A. E., Anderson, R. L., Werdegar, D. & Atlas, E. (1978). Nosocomial respiratory tract infection and colonization with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. American Journal of Medicine 65, 507513.
Casewell, M. & Phillips, I. (1977). Hands as route of transmission for Klebsiella species. British Medical Journal ii, 13151317.
Chadwick, P. (1973). Relative importance of air-borne and other routes in the infection of tracheostomised patients with Pseudomonasaeruginosa. In Airborne Transmission and Airborne Infection (ed. Iters, J. F. and Winkler, K. C.). Utrecht: Oostlock Publishing Co.
Edwards, P. R. & Ewing, W. H. (1972). Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, 3rd edn.Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Co.
Eickhoff, T. C. (1977). Perspectives in hospital infection. In Infection Control in Health Care Facilities (ed. Cundy, K. R. and Ball, W.). Baltimore: University Park Press.
Evans, C. A., Smith, W. M., Johnston, E. A. & Giblett, E. R. (1950). Bacterial flora of the normal human skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 15, 305324.
French, G. L., Casewell, M. W., Roncoroni, A. J., Knight, S., Phillips, I. (1980). A hospital outbreak of antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter anitratus. Journal of Hospital Infection 1, 125131.
Geere, I. W. (1977). Enterobacter agglomerans: the clinically important plant pathogen. Canadian Medical Association Journal 116, 517519.
Glew, R. H., Moellering, R. C. Jr. & Kunz, L. J. (1977). Infections with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (Herellea vaginicola): clinical and laboratory studies. Medicine (Baltimore) 56, 7997.
Haverkorn, M. L. & Michel, M. F. (1979 a). Nosocomial Klebsiellas. I. Colonization of hospitalized patients. Journal of Hygiene 82, 177193.
Haverkorn, M. L. & Michel, M. F. (1979 b). Nosocomial Klebsiellas II. Transfer in a hospital ward. Journal of Hygiene 82, 195205.
Knittle, M. A., Eitzman, D. V. & Baer, H. (1975). Role of hand contamination of personnel in the epidemilogy of Gram-negative nosocomial infections. Journal of Pediatrics 86, 433437.
Larson, E. L., Strom, M. S. & Evans, C. A. (1980). Analysis of three variables in sampling solutions used to assay bacteria of hands: type of solution, use of antiseptic neutralizers, and solution temperature. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11, 355360.
Lowbury, E. J. L. & Fox, J. (1954). The epidemiology of infection with Pseudomonas pyocyanea in a burns unit. Journal of Hygiene 52, 403416.
Maki, D. G., Rhame, F. S., Mackel, D. C. & Bennett, J. V. (1976). Nationwide epidemic of septicemia caused by contaminated intravenous products. I. Epidemiologic and clinical features. American Journal of Medicine 60, 471485.
Maki, D. G. (1978). Control of colonization and transmission of pathogenic bacteria in the hospital. Annals of Internal Medicine 89, 777780.
Marples, M. J. (1969). The normal flora of the human skin. British Journal of Dermatology 81 (Supplement 1), 213.
Marples, R. R. & Towers, A. G. (1979). A laboratory model for the investigation of contact transfer of micro-organisms. Journal of Hygiene 82, 237248.
Mayhall, C. G., Lamb, V. A., Gayle, W. E. Jr & Haynes, B. W. Jr. (1979). Enterobacter cloacae septicemia in a burn center: epidemiology and control of an outbreak. Journal of Infectious Diseases 139, 166171.
McBride, M. E., Montes, L. F., Fahlberg, W. J. & Knox, J. M. (1972). Microbial flora of nurses' hands. I. Quantitative differences in bacterial population between nurses and other occupational groups. International Journal of Dermatology 11, 4953.
McBride, M. E., Montes, L. F., Fahlberg, W. J. & Knox, J. M. (1974). Microbial flora of nurses' hands. II. Qualitative differences in occupational groups. International Journal of Dermatology 13, 197204.
Noble, W. C. & Somerville, D. A. (1974). The Gram negative bacilli. In Microbiology of human skin. Major Problems in Dermatology, vol. 2. London: W. B. Saunders.
Parry, M. F., Hutchinson, J. H., Brown, N. A., Wu, C. H. & Estreller, L. (1980). Gram-negative sepsis in neonates: a nursery outbreak due to hand carriage of Citrobacter diversus. Pediatrics 65, 11051109.
Pien, F. D., Martin, W. J., Hermans, P. E. & Washington, J. A. II., (1972). Clinical and bacteriologic observations on the proposed species, Enterobacter agglomerans (the herbicolalathyri bacteria). Mayo Clinic Proceedings 47, 739745.
Polk, H. C. & Lopez, J. F. (1972). Bacterial ecology of hands of intensive care unit nurses cleansed with betadine surgical scrub. In Medical and Surgical Antisepsis; the Betadine Microbicides. New York: Purdue Frederick Co.
Ramphal, R. & Kluge, R. M. (1979). Acinetobacter calcoaceticus variety antiratus: an increasing nosocomial problem. American Journal of Medical Science 277, 5766.
Retailliau, H. F., Hightower, A. W., Dixon, R. C. & Allen, J. R. (1979). Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: a nosocomial pathogen with an unusual seasonal pattern. Journal of Infections Diseases 139, 371375.
Rosenthal, S. L. (1978). Clinical role of Acinetobacter and Moraxella. In Glucose Non-fermenting Gram-negative Bacteria in clinical microbiology (ed. Gilardi, G. L.), pp. 105117. West Palm Beach, Florida: CRC Press.
Salzman, T. C., Clark, J. J. & Klemm, L. (1968). Hand contamination of personnel as a mechanism of cross-infection in nosocomial infections with antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella-Enterobacter. In Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotheraphy – 1967, pp. 97100. ed. Hobby, G. L.. Ann Arbor, Michigan: American Society for Microbiology.
Schaffner, W. (1977). Humans: the animate reservoir of nosocomial pathogens. In Infection Control in Health Care Facilities (ed. Cundy, K. R. and Ball, W.), Baltimore: University Park Press.
Selwyn, S. (1965). The mechanism and prevention of cross-infection in dermatological wards. Journal of Hygiene 65, 5971.
Shulman, J. A., Terry, P. M. & Hough, C. E. (1971). Colonization with gentamicin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pyocine type 5, in a burn unit. Journal of Infectious Diseases (supplement 124), S 18S 23.
Taplin, D., Rebell, G. & Zaias, N. (1963). The human skin as a source of Mima-Herellea infections. Journal of the American Medical Association 186, 952955.
Taylor, G. R., Kropp, K. D. & Molina, T. C. (1978). Microflora analysis of a child with severe combined immune deficiency. Infection and Immunity 19, 385390.
Taylor, L. J. (1978). An evaluation of hand washing techniques. I. Nursing Times 74, 5455.
van Bijsterveld, O. P. (1972). The incidence of Moraxella on mucous membranes and the skin. American Journal of Ophthalmology 74, 7276.

Hand carriage of aerobic Gram-negative rods by health care personnel

  • Brian G. Adams (a1) and Thomas J. Marrie (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed