Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Pneumococcal disease. In: Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: ‘The Pink Book’, 12th edn, 2012, pp. 233–248.
Casselbrant, M, Mandel, E. Epidemiology. In: Rosenfeld, R, Bluestone, C, eds. Evidence-Based Otitis Media. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker, 2003, pp. 147–162.
Teele, DW, Klein, JO, Rosner, B. Epidemiology of otitis media during the first seven years of life in children in greater Boston: a prospective, cohort study. Journal of Infectious Disease
1989; 160: 83–94.
Vergison, A. Microbiology of otitis media: a moving target. Vaccine
2008; 26 (Suppl. 7): G5–10.
Chonmaitree, T, et al.
Viral upper respiratory tract infection and otitis media complication in young children. Clinical Infectious Disease
2008; 46: 815–823.
Arola, M, Ziegler, T, Ruuskanen, O. Respiratory virus infection as a cause of prolonged symptoms in acute otitis media. Journal of Pediatrics
1990; 116: 697–701.
Winther, B, Doyle, WJ, Alper, CM. A high prevalence of new onset otitis media during parent diagnosed common colds. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
2006; 70: 1725–1730.
Heikkinen, T, Ruuskanen, O. Temporal development of acute otitis media during upper respiratory tract infection. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
1994; 13: 659–661.
Massa, HM, Cripps, AW, Lehmann, D. Otitis media: viruses, bacteria, biofilms and vaccines. Medical Journal of Australia
2009; 191 (9 Suppl.): S44–49.
Heikkinen, T, Chonmaitree, T. Importance of respiratory viruses in acute otitis media. Clinical Microbiology Review
2003; 16: 230–41.
Acuin, J. Chronic suppurative otitis media. Clinical Evidence (Online)
2007; 2007: 0507.
Monasta, L, et al.
Burden of disease caused by otitis media: Systematic review and global estimates. PLoS One
2012; 7: e36226.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Invasive pneumococcal disease in children 5 years after conjugate vaccine introduction – eight states, 1998–2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
2008; 57: 144–148.
Pai, R, et al.
Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. Post vaccine genetic structure of streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A from children in the United States. Journal of Infectious Disease
2005; 192: 1988–1995.
Pichichero, ME, Casey, JR. Emergence of a multiresistant serotype 19A pneumococcal strain not included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine as an otopathogen in children. Journal of the American Medical Association
2007; 298: 1772–1778.
Pilishvili, T, et al.
Active Bacterial Core Surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network. Sustained reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease in the era of conjugate vaccine. Journal of Infectious Disease
2010; 201: 32–41.
Beall, BW, et al.
Shifting genetic structure of invasive serotype 19A pneumococci in the united states. Journal of Infectious Disease
2011; 203: 1360–1368.
Moore, MR, et al.
Population snapshot of emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in the united states, 2005. Journal of Infectious Disease
2008; 197: 1016–1027.
Sharma, D, et al.
Pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease in children before introduction of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine: Comparison with the era before 7-valent conjugate vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
2013; 32: e45–53.
Cohen, R, et al.
Risk factors for serotype 19A carriage after introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal vaccination. BMC Infectious Disease
2011; 11: 95.
Pichichero, ME, Casey, JR. Evolving microbiology and molecular epidemiology of acute otitis media in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
2007; 26 (10 Suppl.): S12–16.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Licensure of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and recommendations for use among children – advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP), 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
2010; 59: 258–261.
Shapiro, ED. Prevention of pneumococcal infection with vaccines: An evolving story. Journal of the American Medical Association
2012; 307: 847–849.
Kaur, R, et al.
Simultaneous assay for four bacterial species including alloiococcus otitidis using multiplex-PCR in children with culture negative acute otitis media. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
2010; 29: 741–745.
Office of the Federal Register NAaRA. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 11.1., 2012.
Casey, JR, Adlowitz, DG, Pichichero, ME. New patterns in the otopathogens causing acute otitis media six to eight years after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
2010; 29: 304–309.
Pelton, SI, et al.
Emergence of 19A as virulent and multidrug resistant pneumococcus in Massachusetts following universal immunization of infants with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
2007; 26: 468–472.
Hanage, WP, et al.
Carried pneumococci in Massachusetts children: The contribution of clonal expansion and serotype switching. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
2011; 30: 302–308.
Homoe, P. Otitis media in Greenland. Studies on historical, epidemiological, microbiological, and immunological aspects. International Journal of Circumpolar Health
2001; 60 (Suppl. 2): 1–54.
Casselbrant, ML, Mandel, EM. The genetics of otitis media. Current Allergy Asthma Report
2001; 1: 353–357.
Sabirov, A, et al.
Breast-feeding is associated with a reduced frequency of acute otitis media and high serum antibody levels against NTHi and outer membrane protein vaccine antigen candidate P6. Pediatric Research
2009; 66: 565–570.
Ruohola, A, et al.
Bacterial and viral interactions within the nasopharynx contribute to the risk of acute otitis media. Journal of Infection
2013; 66: 247–254.
Pettigrew, MM, et al.
Upper respiratory tract microbial communities, acute otitis media pathogens, and antibiotic use in healthy and sick children. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2012; 78: 6262–6270.
Friedel, V, et al.
Impact of respiratory viral infections on alpha-hemolytic streptococci and otopathogens in the nasopharynx of young children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
2013; 32: 27–31.
Tano, K, et al.
Bacterial interference between pathogens in otitis media and alpha-haemolytic streptococci analysed in an in vitro model. Acta Otolaryngologica
2002; 122: 78–85.
Millar, EV, et al.
Nasopharyngeal carriage of streptococcus pneumoniae in navajo and white mountain apache children before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
2009; 28: 711–716.
Jacoby, P, et al. ; Kalgoorlie Otitis Media Research Project Team. Modelling the co-occurrence of streptococcus pneumoniae with other bacterial and viral pathogens in the upper respiratory tract. Vaccine
2007; 25: 2458–2464.
Xu, Q, et al.
Nasopharyngeal bacterial interactions in children. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2012; 18: 1738–1745.
Wroe, PC, et al.
Pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic resistance in young children before 13-valent conjugate vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
2012; 31: 249–254.