Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

First norovirus outbreaks associated with consumption of green seaweed (Enteromorpha spp.) in South Korea

  • J. H. PARK (a1) (a2), H. S. JEONG (a3), J. S. LEE (a4), S. W. LEE (a3), Y. H. CHOI (a2), S. J. CHOI (a2), I. S. JOO (a4), Y. R. KIM (a5), Y. K. PARK (a6) and S. K. YOUN (a2)...

Summary

In February 2012, an outbreak of gastroenteritis was reported in school A; a successive outbreak was reported at school B. A retrospective cohort study conducted in school A showed that seasoned green seaweed with radishes (relative risk 7·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1–56·2) was significantly associated with illness. Similarly, a case-control study of students at school B showed that cases were 5·1 (95% confidence interval 1·1–24·8) times more likely to have eaten seasoned green seaweed with pears. Multiple norovirus genotypes were detected in samples from students in schools A and B. Norovirus GII.6 isolated from schools A and B were phylogenetically indistinguishable. Green seaweed was supplied by company X, and norovirus GII.4 was isolated from samples of green seaweed. Green seaweed was assumed to be linked to these outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported norovirus outbreak associated with green seaweed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      First norovirus outbreaks associated with consumption of green seaweed (Enteromorpha spp.) in South Korea
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      First norovirus outbreaks associated with consumption of green seaweed (Enteromorpha spp.) in South Korea
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      First norovirus outbreaks associated with consumption of green seaweed (Enteromorpha spp.) in South Korea
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Author for correspondence: Dr S. K. Youn, Division of Epidemic Intelligence Service, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongwon-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea (363-700). (Email: yunki7777@naver.com)

References

Hide All
1. Adler, JL, Zickl, R. Winter vomiting disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1969; 119: 668673.
2. Lopman, B, Zambon, M, Brown, DW. The evolution of norovirus, the ‘gastric flu’. PLoS Medicine 2008; 5: e42.
3. Wang, QH, et al. Porcine noroviruses related to human noroviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 18741881.
4. Cheon, DS, et al. Seasonal prevalence of asymptomatic norovirus infection in Korean children. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2010; 7: 14271430.
5. Mattner, F, et al. Risk groups for clinical complications of norovirus infections: an outbreak investigation. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2006; 12: 6974.
6. Repp, KK, Keene, WE. A point-source norovirus outbreak caused by exposure to formites. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012; 205: 16391641.
7. Kirkwood, C. Viral gastroenteritis in Europe: a new norovirus variant? Lancet 2004; 363: 671672.
8. Hall, AJ, et al. Acute gastroenteritis surveillance through the national outbreak reporting system, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2013; 19: 13051309.
9. Hall, AJ, et al. Norovirus disease in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2013; 19: 11981205.
10. Gwack, J, et al. Trends in water- and foodborne disease outbreaks in Korea, 2007–2009. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives 2010; 1: 5054.
11. DuPont, HL, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of rifaximin to prevent travelers’ diarrhea. Annals of Internal Medicine 2005; 142: 805812.
12. Sala, MR, et al. Cases of acute gastroenteritis due to calicivirus in outbreaks: clinical differences by age and etiologic agent. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Published online: 30 December 2013 . doi: 10.1111/1469–0691. 12522.
13. Patel, MM, et al. Noroviruses: a comprehensive review. Journal of Clinical Virology 2009; 44: 18.
14. Cho, HB, et al. Clinical and microbial evaluation of the effects on gingivitis of a mouth rinse containing an Enteromorpha linza extract. Journal of Medicinal Food 2011; 14: 16701676.
15. Zhang, Z, et al. Synthesized oversulfated and acetylated derivatives of polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha linza and their potential antioxidant activity. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2011; 49: 10121015.
16. Li, Y, et al. Production of enzymes by Alteromonas sp. A321 to degrade polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera . Carbohydrate Polymers 2013; 98: 988994.
17. Wang, D, Tian, P. Inactivation conditions for human norovirus measured by an in situ capture-qRT-PCR method. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2014; 172: 7682.
18. Chang, JM, Fang, TJ. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium in iceberg lettuce and the antimicrobial effect of rice vinegar against E. coli O157:H7. Food Microbiology 2007; 24: 745751.
19. Donaldson, EF, et al. Norovirus pathogenesis: mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion in human populations. Immunological Reviews 2008; 225: 190211.
20. Lopman, B, et al. Environmental transmission of norovirus gastroenteritis. Current Opinion in Virology 2012; 2: 96102.
21. Wyn-Jones, AP, et al. Surveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waters. Water Research 2011; 45: 10251038.
22. Lee, C, Kim, SJ. The genetic diversity of human noroviruses detected in river water in Korea. Water Research 2008; 42: 44774484.
23. Suffredini, E, et al. Norovirus contamination in different shellfish species harvested in the same production areas. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2012; 113: 686692.
24. Flannery, J, et al. Concentration of norovirus during wastewater treatment and its impact on oyster contamination. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2012; 78: 34003406.
25. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Norovirus outbreaks by seaweed in Korea, 2012. Public Health and Weekly Report 2012; 5: 372373.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed