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Evolving epidemiology of Nipah virus infection in Bangladesh: evidence from outbreaks during 2010–2011

  • A. CHAKRABORTY (a1) (a2), H. M. S. SAZZAD (a1), M. J. HOSSAIN (a1), M. S. ISLAM (a1), S. PARVEEN (a1), M. HUSAIN (a2), S. S. BANU (a2), G. PODDER (a1), S. AFROJ (a1), P. E. ROLLIN (a3), P. DASZAK (a4), S. P. LUBY (a1) (a5) (a6), M. RAHMAN (a2) and E. S. GURLEY (a1)...

Summary

Drinking raw date palm sap is the primary route of Nipah virus (NiV) transmission from bats to people in Bangladesh; subsequent person-to-person transmission is common. During December 2010 to March 2011, we investigated NiV epidemiology by interviewing cases using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and group discussions to collect clinical and exposure histories. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for transmission. We identified 43 cases; 23 were laboratory-confirmed and 20 probable. Thirty-eight (88%) cases died. Drinking raw date palm sap and contact with an infected person were major risk factors; one healthcare worker was infected and for another case transmission apparently occurred through contact with a corpse. In absence of these risk factors, apparent routes of transmission included drinking fermented date palm sap. For the first time, a case was detected in eastern Bangladesh. Identification of new epidemiological characteristics emphasizes the importance of continued NiV surveillance and case investigation.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

* Author for correspondence: Dr A. Chakraborty, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). (Email: apurba_dr@yahoo.com)

References

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