The work was supported by grant no. BT/PR7667/MED/14/1057/2006 from the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. The authors thank the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India for financial assistance. We also thank Dr B. D. Malhotra, Scientist G, Dr G. Sumana, Scientist C and Renu Singh, Ph.D. student, BECPRL, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India for their valuable inputs. We are grateful to Dr Aruna Mittal, Scientist F, National Institute of Pathology, ICMR, for providing us with C. trachomatis DNA. We are also grateful to Dr Benu Dhawan, Additional Professor, Department of Microbiology, AIIMS, for providing us DNA of Mycoplasma hominis (NCTC 10111), Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum (NCTC 10177) and to Dr Immaculata Xess, Additional Professor, Department of Microbiology, AIIMS for providing DNA of Candida spp. We also thank Ms M. Kalaivani, Scientist, Department of Biostatistics, AIIMS, New Delhi for providing statistical analysis and Mr Rajinder Singh, Laboratory Technician, STD Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, AIIMS, for his invaluable assistance.
WHO. Global prevalence and incidence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections: overview and estimates. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2001.
Mahony, JB, et al.
Multiplex PCR for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in genitourinary specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
1995; 33: 3049–3053.
Use of nucleic acid amplification tests in investigating child sexual abuse. Sexually Transmitted Infections
2001; 77: 153–154.
Smith, DW, Tapsall, JW, Lum, G. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of nucleic acid detection tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Australia: a position paper on behalf of the Public Health Laboratory Network. Communicable Diseases Intelligence
2005; 29: 358–365.
Katz, AR, et al.
False-positive gonorrhoea test results with a nucleic acid amplification test: the impact of low prevalence on positive predictive value. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2004; 38: 814–819.
Tabrizi, SN, et al.
Evaluation of six commercial nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other Neisseria species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2011; 49: 3610–3615.
Johnson, RE, et al.
Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections: 2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports
2002; 51: 1–38.
Verma, R, et al.
Diagnostic implications of 16S ribosomal assay for gonorrhoea. Sexually Transmitted Infections
2010; 86: 461–464.
WHO. Laboratory diagnosis of gonorrhoea. WHO Regional Publication, South East Asia series no. 33. 1999. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Hjelmevoll, SO, et al.
A fast real-time polymerase chain reaction method for sensitive and specific detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. Journal of Molecular Diagnostics
2006; 8: 574–581.
Farrell, DJ. Evaluation of AMPLICOR Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR using cppB nested PCR and 16S rRNA PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
1999; 37: 386–390.
Whiley, DM, Tapsall, JW, Sloots, TP. Nucleic acid amplification testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae: an ongoing challenge. Journal of Molecular Diagnostics
2006; 8: 3–15.
Whiley, DM, et al.
Evidence that the gonococcal porA pseudogene is present in a broad range of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains; suitability as a diagnostic target. Pathology
2006; 38: 445–448.
Boel, CH, et al.
Evaluation of conventional and real-time PCR assays using two targets for confirmation of results of the COBAS AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae test for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical samples. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2005; 43: 2231–2235.
Mangold, KA, et al.
Neisseria species identification assay for the confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae-positive results of the COBAS amplicor PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2007; 45: 1403–1409.
Maze, MJ, et al.
Nucleic acid amplification of the opa gene for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: experience from a diagnostic laboratory. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2011; 49: 1128–1129.
Whiley, DM, et al.
False-negative results using Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene PCR – a clinical gonococcal isolate with an N. meningitidis porA sequence, Australia, March 2011. Eurosurveillance
2011; 16: pii=19874.
Geraats-Peters, CW, et al.
Specific and sensitive detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical specimens by Real-Time PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2005; 43: 5653–5659.
Tabrizi, SN, et al.
Evaluation of opa-based real-time PCR for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
2005; 32: 199–202.
Goire, N, et al.
A duplex Neisseria gonorrhoeae real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene and multicopy opa genes. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
2008; 61: 6–12.