1.Angus, KW.Cryptosporidiosis in man, domestic animals and birds: a review. J Roy Soc Med 1983; 76: 62–70.
2.Angus, KW. Mammalian cryptosporidiosis: a veterinary perspective. In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA. eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburgh: Moredun Research Institute, 1988: 43–53.
3.Tzipori, S.Cryptosporidiosis in animals and humans. Microbiol Rev. 1983; 47: 84–96.
4.Tzipori, S. Cryptosporidiosis in perspective. In: Baker, JR, Muller, R, eds. Advances in parasitology. Vol. 27. London: Academic Press, 1988: 63–129.
5.Current, WL, Reese, NC, Ernst, JV. et al. Human cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent and immunodeficient persons. New Eng J Med 1983; 308: 1252–7.
6.Pitlik, SD, Fainstain, V, Garza, D et al. , Human cryptosporidiosis: Spectrum of disease. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143: 2269–75.
7.Casemore, DP, Sands, RL, Curry, A.Cryptosporidium species a ‘new’ human pathogen. J Clin Pathol 1985: 38: 1321–36.
8.Tzipori, S, Angus, KW, Gray, EW, Campbell, I.Vomiting and diarrhea associated with cryptosporidial infection. New Eng J Med1 1980: 383: 818.
9.Bird, RG, Smith, MD.Cryptosporidiosis in man: parasite life cycle and fine structural pathology. Pathology 1980; 132: 217–33.
10.Ericsson, CD, DuPont, HL.Cryptosporidium and diarrhoea. Lancet 1983; ii: 914.
11.Schultz, MG.Emerging zoonoses. New Eng J Med 1983; 308: 1285–6.
12.Casemore, DP, Jackson, FB.Hypothesis: cryptosporidiosis in human beings is not primarily a zoonosis. J Infect 1984; 9, 153–6.
13.Casemore, DP, Jackson, FB.Sporadic cryptosporidiosis in children. Lancet 1983; ii: 679.
14.Tzipori, S, Smith, M, Birch, C, Barnes, G, Bishop, R.Cryptosporidiosis in hospital patients with gastroenteritis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1983; 32: 931–4.
15.Hart, CA, Baxby, D, Blundell, N.Gastro-enteritis due to Cryptosporidium: a prospective survey in a children's hospital. J Infect 1984; 9: 264–70.
16.Hojlyng, N, Molbak, K, Jepsen, S, Hansson, AP.Cryptosporidiosis in Liberian children. Lancet 1984; i: 734.
17.Bogaerts, J, Lepage, P, Rouvroy, D, Vandepitte, J.Cryptosporidium spp., a frequent cause of diarrhea in central Africa1. J Clin Microbiol 1984; 20: 874–6.
18.Jokipii, L, Pohjola, S, Jokipii, AMM.Cryptosporidium: a frequent finding in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Lancet 1983; ii: 358–61.
19.Holten-Andersen, W, Gerstoft, J, Henriksen, SA, Pedersen, NS.Prevalence of Cryptosporidium among patients with acute enteric infection. J Infect 1984; 9: 277–82.
20.Ma, P, Soave, R.Three-step stool examination for cryptosporidiosis in 10 homosexual men with protracted watery diarrhea. J Infect Dis 1983: 147: 824–8.
21.Garcia, LS, Bruckner, DA, Brewer, TC, Shimizu, RY.Techniques for the recovery and identification of cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1983; 18: 185–90.
22.Baxby, D, Blundell, N, Hart, CA.The development and performance of a simple. sensitive method for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faeces. J Hyg 1984: 92: 317–23.
23.Nichols, G, Thom, BT.Screening for cryptosporidium in stools. Lancet 1984: i: 735.
24.Casemore, DP, Armstrong, M, Sands, RL.Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. J Clin Pathol 1985; 38, 1337–41.
25.Galbraith, NS. The application of epidemiological methods in the investigation and control of an acute episode of infection. In: Holland, WW, Detels, R, Knox, G. eds. Oxford textbook of public health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985; Vol. 4: 3–21.
26.DuPont, HL.Cryptosporidiosis and the healthy host. New Eng J Med 1985: 312: 1319–20.
27.Soave, R, Armstrong, D.Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis. Rev Infect Dis 1986; 8: 1012–23.
28.Fayer, R, Ungar, LP.Cryptosporidium spp. and cryptosporidiosis. Microbiol Rev 1986; 50, 458–83.
29.Ma, P. Cryptosporidiosis and immune enteropathy: a review. In: Remington, JS, Swartz, MN. eds. Current clinical topics in infectious diseases. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1987; 99–149.
30.Hart, CA, Baxby, D.Cryptosporidiosis in children. Pediatr Rev Commun 1987: 1: 311–41.
31.Current, WL.Cryptosporidium: its biology and potential for environmental transmission. CRC Crit Rev Envir Contr 1986; 17: 21–51.
32.Casemore, DP. Human cryptosporidiosis. In: Reeves, D, Geddes, A. eds. Recent advances in infection, No. 3. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. 1988; 209–36.
33.Janoff, EN, Reller, LB.Cryptosporidium species, a protean protozoan. J Clin Microbiol, 1987 25, 967–75.
34.Current, WL.Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis. In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA, eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburgh: Moredun Research Institute, 1988: 1–17.
35.Upton, SJ, Current, WL.The species of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) infecting mammals. Am Soc Parasitol 1985; 71: 625–9.
36.Current, WL, Reese, NC.A comparison of endogenous development of three isolates of Cryptosporidium in suckling mice. J Protozool 1986; 33, 98–108.
37.Tzipori, S, Angus, KW, Campbell, I, Gray, EW.Cryptosporidium: Evidence for a single species genus. Infect Immun 1980; 30: 884–6.
38.Tyzzer, EE.A sporozoan in the peptic glands of the common mouse. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med1 1907–1908; 5: 12–13.
39.Tyzzer, EE.Extracellular coccidium, Cryptosporidium muris (Gen et sp nov) of the gastric glands of the common mouse. J Med Res 1910; 23, 487–509.
40.Tyzzer, EE.Cryptosporidium parvum (sp. nov.), a coccidium found in the small intestine of the common mouse. Archiv für Protistenkunde 1912; 26, 394–412.
41.Anonymous. Health and parasites of a wild mouse population. Proc Zool Soc London 1931 (3): 607–878.
42.Klesius, PH, Haynes, TB, Malo, LK.Infectivity of Cryptosporidium sp. isolated from wild mice for calves and mice. JAVMA 1986; 189: 192–3.
43.Casemore, DP. Gastroenteritis in a semi-rural population (The emergence of a ‘new’ pathogen, Cryptosporidium). PhD Thesis, 1987; School of Pharmacy, Liverpool.
44.Anderson, BC. Cryptosporidium species in cattle. In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA, eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburgh. Moredun Institute, 1988: 55–63.
45.Casemore, DP.The antibody response to Cryptosporidium: development of a serological test and its use in a study of immunologically normal persons. J Infect 1987; 14: 125–34.
46.Nichols, G, Dhanraj, S, McLauchlin, J. Characterization of oocyst surface antigens of Cryptosporidium spp. (Abstract) In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA, eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburgh: Moredun Research Institute. 1988: 121.
47.Current, WL, Upton, SJ, Haynes, TB.The life cycle of Cryptosporidium baileyi n.sp. (Apicomplexa. Cryptosporidiidae) infecting chickens. J Protozool 1986; 33: 289–96.
48.Blagburn, BL. Avian cryptosporidiosis. In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA, eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburgh: Moredun Research Institute. 1988: 27–42.
49.O'Donoghue, PJ.Cryptosporidium infections in man, birds and fish. Austr Vet J 1985; 62. 253–8.
50.Rush, BA, Chapman, PA, Ineson, RW.Cryptosporidium and drinking water. Lancet 1987: ii: 632–3.
51.Tillett, HE, Thomas, MEM.Monitoring infectious diseases using routine microbiology data I. Study of gastroenteritis in an urban area. J Hyg 1981: 86: 49–69.
52.Skirrow, MB.A demographic survey of campylobacter, salmonella and shigella infections in England. Epidemiol Infect 1987; 99: 647–57.
53.Casemore, DP.Cryptosporidiosis.PHLS Microbiology Digest 1987: 4: 1–5.
54.Pohjola-Stenroos, S. Diagnostic and epidemiological aspects of Cryptosporidium infection, a protozoan infection of increasing veterinary public health importance. Academic dissertation. College of Veterinary Medicine. Helsinki, 1986.
55.Palmer, SR, Biffin, A.Cryptosporidiosis.PHLS Microbiology Digest 1987; 4: 6–7.
56.Jokipii, L, Pohjola, S, Jokipii, AM.Cryptosporidiosis associated with travelling and giardiasis. Gastroenterol 1985; 89. 838–42.
57.Atterholm, I, Castor, B, Norlin, K.Cryptosporidiosis in southern Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis 1987: 19, 231–4.
58.Pohjola, S, Jokipii, AMM, Jokipii, L.Sporadic cryptosporidiosis in a rural population is asymptomatic and associated with contact to cattle. Acta Vet Scand 1986; 27, 91–102.
59.Thomson, MA, Benson, JWT, Wright, PA.Two year study of cryptosporidium infection. Arch Dis Child 1987: 62: 559–63.
60.Wolfson, JS, Richter, JM, Waldron, MA, Weber, DJ, McCarthy, DM, Hopkins, CC.Cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent patients. New Eng J Med 1985; 312: 1278–82.
61.Mata, L.Cryptosporidium and other protozoa in diarrheal disease in less developed countries. Ped Infect Dis (Suppl) 1986; 5: S117–S129.
62.Hojlyng, N, Molbak, K, Jepsen, S.Cryptosporidium spp., a frequent cause of diarrhoea in Liberian children. J Clin Microbiol 1986; 23: 1109–13.
63.Carstensen, H, Hansen, HL, Kristiansen, HO, Gomme, G.The epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and other intestinal parasitoses in children in southern Guinea-Bissau. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1987: 81: 860–4.
64.Pape, JW, Levine, E, Beaulieu, ME, Marshall, F, VerdierRJohnston, WD.Cryptosporidiosis in Haitian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1987; 36: 333–7.
65.Baxby, D, Hart, CA.The incidence of cryptosporidiosis: a two-year prospective survey in a children's hospital. J. Hyg 1986; 96: 107–11.
66.Shepherd, RC, Sinha, GP, Reed, CL, Russell, FE.Cryptosporidiosis in the West of Scotland. Scot Med J 1989; 33: 365–8.
67.Corbett-Feeney, G.Cryptosporidium among children with acute diarrhoea in the west of Ireland. J Infect 1987; 14, 79–84.
68.Cruz, JR, Cano, F, Caceres, P, Chew, F, Pareja, G.Infection and diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium sp. among Guatemalan infants. J Clin Microbiol 1988; 26, 88–91.
69.Smith, G, Van den Ende, J.Cryptosporidiosis among black children in hospital in South Africa. J Infect 1986; 13: 25–30.
70.Mathan, M, Venkatesan, S, George, R, Mathew, M, Mathan, VI.Cryptosporidium and diarrhoea in southern Indian children. Lancet 1985; ii: 1172–5.
71.Lahdevirta, J, Jokipii, AMM, Sammalkorpi, K, Jokipii, L.Perinatal infection with cryptosporidium and failure to thrive. Lancet 1987; i: 48–9.
72.Dale, BAS, Gordon, G, Thomson, R, Urquart, R.Perinatal infection with cryptosporidium. Lancet 1987; i: 1042–3.
73.Hamoudi, AC, Qualman, SJ, Marcon, MJ, et al. , Do regional variations in prevalence of cryptosporidiosis occur? The central Ohio experience. Am J Public Health 1988: 78: 273–5.
74.Skeels, MR, Sokolow, R, Hubbard, CV, Foster, LR.Screening for co-infection with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Oregon public health clinics. Am J Public Health 1988; 78: 270–3.
75.Kern, W, Mayer, S, Kreuzer, P, Vanek, E.Low prevalence of intestinal cryptosporidiosis among immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with and without diarrhoea in southern Germany. Infection 1987; 15: 440–2.
76.Marshall, AR, Al-Jumaili, IJ, Fenwick, GA, Bint, AJ, Record, CO.Cryptosporidiosis in patients at a large teaching hospital. J Clin Microbiol 1987; 25: 172–3.
77.Nachamkin, I, Jones, A, Hasyn, H.Routine parasitological examination for Cryptosporidium. J Infect Dis 1986; 154: 369–70.
78.Baron, EJ, Schenone, C, Tanenbaum, B.Comparison of three methods for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in a low-prevalence population. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27: 223–4.
79.Bissenden, JG.Cryptosporidium and diarrhoea. Br Med J 1986: 293: 287–8.
80.Waghorn, DJ, Hinkins, R.Screening for cryptosporidial infection. J Clin Pathol 1986: 39. 1363.
81.Tzipori, S.Cryptosporidium and routine parasitological diagnosis. J Infect Dis 1987: 156: 248.
82.Jackson, FB, Casemore, DP.Cryptosporidium and diarrhoea. Br Med J 1986; 293: 625–6.
83.Freidank, H, Kist, M.Cryptosporidia in immunocompetent patients with gastroenteritis. Europ J Clin Microbiol 1986; 6: 56–9.
84.Holley, HP, Dover, C.Cryptosporidium: a common cause of parasitic diarrhea in otherwise healthy individuals. J Infect Dis 1986; 153: 365–8.
85.Rahman, ASMH, Sanyal, SC, Al-Mahmud, KA, Sobhan, A.Cryptosporidium diarrhoea in calves and their handlers in Bangladesh. Ind J Med Res 1985; 82: 510–6.
86.Mann, ED, Sekla, LH, Nayer, GPS, Koschik, C.Infection with Cryptosporidium spp. in humans and cattle in Manitoba. Canad J Vet Res 1986; 50: 174–8.
87.Nguyen, XM.Cryptosporidial diarrhoea in children. Infection 1987; 15: 444–6.
88.Casemore, DP, Jessop, EG, Douce, D, Jackson, FB.Cryptosporidium plus campylobacter: an outbreak in a semi-rural population. J Hyg 1986; 96: 95–105.
89.Chermette, R, Boufassa-Ouzrout, S, Cryptosporidiosis: a cosmopolitan disease in animals and man, 2nd edition, Technical Series No. 5. Office International des Epizooties. Paris, 1988.
90.Casemore, DP.Bottle-fed lambs as a source of human cryptosporidiosis. J Infect 1989; 19: 101–4.
91.Casemore, DP.Cryptosporidiosis: another source. Brit Med J 1989; 298: 750–1.
92.Casemore, DP. Educational farm visits and associated infection hazards. Communicable Disease Report 1989; 89/19: 3. PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance centre. Public Health Laboratory Service, London.
93.Koch, KL, Shankey, V, Weinstein, GS, et al. , Cryptosporidiosis in a patient with hemophilia, common variable hypogammaglobulinemia, and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99: 337–40.
94.Lewis, IJ, Hart, CA, Baxby, D.Diarrhoea due to Cryptosporidium in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Arch Dis Child 1985; 60: 60–2.
95.Pohjola, S, Oksanen, H, Jokipii, L, Jokipii, AMM.Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students. Scand J Infect Dis 1986; 18: 173–8.
96.Hojlyng, N, Holten-Andersen, W, Jepsen, S.Cryptosporidiosis: a case of airborne transmission. Lancet 1987; ii: 271–2.
97.Blagburn, BL, Current, WL.Accidental infection of a researcher with human Cryptosporidium. J Infect Dis 1983; 148: 772–3.
98.Levine, JF, Levy, MG, Walker, RL, Crittenden, S.Cryptosporidiosis in veterinary students. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1988; 193: 1413–4.
99.Baxby, D, Hart, CA, Blundell, N.Shedding of oocysts by immunocompetent individuals with cryptosporidiosis. J Hyg 1985; 95: 703–9.
100.Galbraith, NS, Barrett, NJ, Sockett, PN.The changing pattern of food-born disease in England and Wales. Publ Hlth 1987; 101: 319–28.
101.Nichols, G, Thom, BT. Food poisoning caused by Cryptosporidium: a load of tripe. PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, 1985; (unpublished report CDR 85/17: 3).
102.Barrett, NJ.Communicable disease associated with milk and dairy products in England and Wales: 1983–1984. J Infect 1986; 12: 265–72.
103.Kraft, JC.Giardia and giardiasis in childhood. Pediatr Infect Dis 1982; 1: 196–211.
104.Jokipii, AMM, Hemila, M, Jokipii, L.Prospective study of acquisition of Cryptosporidium. Giardia lamblia, and gastrointestinal illness. Lancet 1985; ii: 487–9.
105.Isaac-Renton, JL, Fogel, D, Stibbs, HH, Ongerth, JE.Giardia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water. Lancet 1987; i: 973–4.
106.Jephcott, AE, Begg, NT, Baker, IA.Outbreak of giardiasis associated with mains water in the United Kingdom. Lancet 1986; i: 730–2.
107.Stetzenbach, LD, Arrowood, MJ, Marshall, MM, Sterling, CR.Monoclonal antibody based immunofluorescent assay for Giardia and Cryptosporidium detection in water samples. Wat Sci Tech 1988; 20: 193–8.
108.Rose, JB, Darbin, H, Gerba, CP.Correlations of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, with water quality variables in a watershed. Wat Sci Tech 1988; 20: 271–6.
109.Rose, JB, Kayed, D, Madore, MS, et al. , Methods for the recovery of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from environmental waters and their comparative occurrence. In: Wallis, PM, Hammond, BR, eds. Advances in Giardia Research. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1988: 205–9.
110.Smith, HV, Girdwood, RWA, Patterson, WJ et al. , Waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. Lancet 1988; ii: 1484.
111.Smith, HV, Patterson, WJ, Hardie, R, et al. , An outbreak of waterborne cryptosporidiosis caused by post-treatment contamination. Epidemiol Infect 1989. In Press.
112.Chapman, PA, Rush, BA. The use of methods based on a monoclonal antibody to investigate the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. PHLS DMRQC Newsletter, Issue 2, 1987: 1–4. Public Health Laboratory Service, London.
113.Rose, JB, Cifrino, A, Madore, MS, et al. , Detection of Cryptosporidium from wastewater and freshwater environments. Wat Sci Tech 1987; 18: 233–9.
114.Madore, MS, Rose, JB, Gerba, CP, Arrowood, MJ, STerling, CR.Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in sewage effluents and selected surface waters. J Parasitol 1987; 73: 702–5.
115.Ongerth, JE, Stibbs, HH.Identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water. Appl Env Microbiol 1987; 53: 672–6.
116.Musial, CE, Arrowood, MJ, Sterling, CR, Gerba, CP.Detection of Cryptosporidium in water by using polypropylene cartridge filters. Appl Env Microbiol 1987; 53L 687–92.
117.Rose, JB.Occurrence and significance of cryptosporidium in water. JAWWA 1988; 80: 53–8.
118.D'Antonio, RG, Winn, RE, Taylor, JP et al. , A waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in normal hosts. Ann Intern Med 1985; 103: 886–8.
119.Anon. Cryptosporidiosis-New Mexico, 1986. Morbid Mortal Weekly Rep 1987; 36: 561–3.
120.Gallaher, MM, Herndon, JL, Nims, LJ, Sterling, CR, Grabowski, DJ, Hull, HF.Cryptosporidiosis and surface water. AJPH 1989; 79: 39–42.
121.Anon (Roundtable). Cryptosporidium. JAWWA 1988; 80: 14–27.
122.Hayes, EB, Matte, TD, O'Brien, TR et al. , Large community outbreak of cryptosporidiosis due to contamination of a filtered public water supply. New Eng J Med 1989; 320: 1372–6.
123.Galbraith, NS, Barrett, NJ, Stanwell-Smith, . Water and Disease after Croyden: A review of water-borne and water-associated disease in the UK 1937–86. J Inst Water Env Manag 1987; 1: 7–21.
124.Brown, EAE, Casemore, DP, Gerken, A, Greatorex, I.Cryptosporidiosis in Great Yarmouth. Publ Hlth 1989; 103: 3–9.
125.Dick, TA. Report of enquiry into water supplies in Oxford and Swindon following an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during February-March 1989. Thames Water, London. 1989.
126.Badenoch, J. Progress report on the work of the DoE group of experts on cryptosporidium in water supplies. Department of the Environment. London. 1989.
127.Anon, . Troubled waters. Lancet 1989; ii: 251–2.
128.Mayon-White, RT, Frankenberg, RA.‘Boil the water’. Lancet 1989: ii: 216.
129.Frankland, P, Frankland, Mrs P. Micro-organisms in water. Their significance, identification and removal. London: Longmans, 1894.
130.Anon. Mr Ridley's sewers. (Leading Article). Lancet 1988: ii: 1463–4.
131.Olson, BH.The safety of our drinking water. Reason for concern but not alarm. New Eng J Med 1989; 320: 1413–4.
132.Pavlasek, I.Effect of disinfectants in infectiousness of oocyts of Cryptosporidium sp. Cs Epidem 1984; 33: 97–101.
133.Blewett, DA. Disinfection and oocysts. In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA, eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburg: Moredun Research Institute, 1988: 107–15.
134.Casemore, DP, Blewett, DA, Wright, SE.Cleaning and disinfection of equipment for flexible endoscopy. Gut 1989; 30: 1156–7.
135.Smith, HV, Smith, AL, Girdwood, RWA, Carrington, EG. The effect of free chlorine on the viability of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts. WRc Publ PRU 2023-M. Medmenham. Bucks: Water Research Centre. 1988.
136.Galbraith, NS.Cryptosporidiosis: another source. Br Med J 1989: 298: 276–7.
137.Smith, HV, Parker, JFW, Girdwood, RWA. A modified method for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in water-related samples. Communicable Disease. Scotland 1989; 89/15: 7–13.
138.Stibbs, HH, Ongerth, JE.Immunofluorescence detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal smears. J Clin Microbiol 1986; 24: 517–21.
139.Sterling, CR, Arrowood, MJ.Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. infections using a direct immunofluorescent assay. Pediatr Infect Dis 1986; 5: (Suppl) S139–S142.
140.Arrowood, MJ, Sterling, CR.Comparison of conventional staining methods and monoclonal antibody-based methods for Cryptosporidium oocyst detection. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27: 1490–5.
141.McLauchlin, J, Casemore, DP, Harrison, TG, et al. , Identification of cryptosporidium oocysts in by using monoclonal antibody. J Lancet 1987; i: 51.
142.Garcia, LS, Brewer, TC, Bruckner, DA.Fluorescence detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in human fecal specimens by using monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbioi 1987; 25: 119–21.
143.Pohjola, S, Neuvonen, E, Niskanen, A, Rantama, A.Rapid immunoassay for detection of cryptosporidium oocysts. Acta Vet Scand 1986: 27: 71–9.
144.Heijbel, H, Slaine, K, Seigal, B, et al. , Outbreak of diarrhea in a day-care center with spread to household members: the role of Cryptosporidium. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987: 6: 532–5.
145.Hannah, J, Riorden, T.Case to case spread of cryptosporidiosis: Evidence from a day nursery outbreak. Publ Hlth 1988; 102: 539–44.
146.Ribeiro, CD, Palmer, SR.Family outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. Brit Med J 1986; 292: 377.
147.Isaacs, D, Hunt, GH, Phillips, AD, et al. , Cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent children. J Clin Pathol 1985; 38: 76–81.
148.Biggs, BA, Megna, R, Wickremesinghe, S, Dwyer, B.Human infection with Cryptosporidium spp.: results of a 24-month survey. Med J Austr 1987; 147: 175–7.
149.Taylor, JP, Perdue, JN, Dingley, D, et al. , Cryptosporidiosis outbreak in a day-care center Am J Dis Child 1985; 139: 1023–5.
150.Combee, CL, Collinge, ML, Britt, EM.Cryptosporidiosis in a hospital-associated day-care center. Pediatr Infect Dis 1986; 5: 528–32.
151.Alpert, G, Bell, LM, Kirkpatrick, CE.Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in a day-care center. Pediatr 1986; 77: 152–7.
152.Melo Cristino, Jag, Carvalho, MIP, Salgado, MJ.An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in a hospital day-care centre. Epidemiol Infect 1988; 101: 355–9.
153.Nichols, G. Cryptosporidiosis during an outbreak of Shigella sonnei dysentery. Communicable Diseases Surveillance Centre, London. 1986 (Unpublished report. CDR 86/08: 3–4).
154.Hunt, DA, Shannon, R, Palmer, SR, Jephcott, AE.Cryptosporidiosis in an urban community. Br Med J 1984; 289: 814–6.
155.Baxby, D, Hart, CA, Taylor, C.Human cryptosporidiosis: a possible case of hospital cross infection. Br Med J 1983; 287: 1760–1.
156.Koch, KL, Phillips, DJ, Aber, RC.Current, WL.Cryptosporidiosis in hospital personnel. Ann Int Med 1985; 102: 593–6.
157.Dryjanski, J, Gold, JWM, Ritchie, MT, et al. , Cryptosporidiosis. Case report in a health team worker. Am j Med 1986; 80: 751–2.
158.Roberts, W, Carr, MF, Ma, J, Ginsburgh, A, Green, PHR.Prevalence of cryptosporidium in patients undergoing endoscopy-evidence for an asymptomatic carrier state. Gastroenterol 1987; 92: 1597.
159.Soave, R. Clinical cryptosporidiosis in man. In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA, eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburgh: Moredun Research Institute, 1988: 19–26.
160.Anonymous. Cleaning and disinfection of equipment for gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy: interim recommendations of a working party of the British Society of Gastroenterology. Gut 1988; 29: 1134–51.
161.Soave, R, Danner, RL, Honig, CL, et al. , Cryptosporidiosis in homosexual men. Ann Int Med 1984; 100: 504–11.
162.Soave, R, Ma, P.Cryptosporidiosis. Traveler's diarrhea in two families. Arch Int Med 1985; 145: 70–2.
163.Ma, P, Kauffman, DL, Helmick, CG, D'Souza, AJ, Navin, TR.Cryptosporidiosis in tourists returning from the Caribbean. New Eng J Med 1985; 312: 647–8.
164.Sterling, C, Seegar, K, Sinclair, NA.Cryptosporidium as a causative agent of traveler's diarrhea. J Int Dis 1986; 153: 380–1.
165.Ericsson, CD, DuPont, HL. Travelers' diarrhea: recent developments. In: Remington, JS, Swartz, MM, eds. Current clinical topics in infectious diseases. New York: McGraw Hill. 1985; 66–84.
166.Malla, N, Sehgal, R, Ganguly, NK, Mahajan, RC.Cryptosporidiosis in children in Chandrigarh. Ind J Med Res 1987 86: 722–5.
167.Cooke, EM.Escherichia coli and man. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1974.
168.Taylor, DN, Echeverria, P.When does cryptosporidium cause diarrhoea. Lancet 1986; i: 320.
169.Sallon, S, Deckelbaum, RJ, Schmid, II, et al. , Cryptosporidium, malnutrition, and chronic diarrhea in children. Am J Dis Child 1988; 142: 312–5.
170.MacFarlane, DE, Horner-Bryce, J.Cryptosporidiosis in well nourished and malnourished children. Acta Pediatr Scand 1987; 76: 474–7.
171.Weitz, JC, Tassara, R, Mercado, TMR, et al. , Cryptosporidiosis in children of a nutritional care centre. Rev Chil Pediatr 1987; 58: 50–3.
172.Blewett, DA. Quantitative studies in Cryptosporidium research. In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA, eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburgh: Moredun Research Institute. 1988: 85–95.
173.Henriksen, SA. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in calves. In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA, eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburgh: Moredun Research Institute. 1988: 79–83.
174.Jokipii, L, Jokipii, AMM.Timing of symptoms and oocyst excretion in human cryptosporidiosis. New Eng J Med 1986; 315: 1643–7.
175.Stehr-Green, JK, McCaig, L, Remsen, HM, Rains, CS, Fox, M, Juranek, DD.Shedding of oocysts in immunocompetent individuals infected with Cryptosporidium. Am J Trop Med 1987; 36: 338–42.
176.Shepherd, RC, Reed, CL, Sinha, GP.Shedding of occysts of Cryptosporidium in immunocompetent patients. J Clin Pathol 1988; 41: 1104–6.
177.Casemore, DP.Timing of symptoms and oocyst excretion in human cryptosporidiosis. New Eng J Med 1987; 317: 168–9.
178.Garcia, LS, Brewer, TC, Bruckner, DA.Incidence of Cryptosporidium in all patients submitting stool specimens for ova and parasite examination: Monoclonal antibody IFA method. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1989; 11: 25–7.
179.Baxby, D, Blundell, N, Hart, CA.Excretion of atypical oocysts by patients with cryptosporidiosis. Lancet 1987; i: 974.
180.Baxby, D, Blundell, N.Recognition and laboratory characteristics of an atypical oocyst of Cryptosporidium. J Infect Dis 1988; 158: 1038–45.
181.Zar, F, Geiseler, PG, Brown, VA.Asymptomatic carriage of cryptosporidium in the stool of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis 1985; 151: 195.
182.Scalgia, M, Senaldi, G, Di Perri, G, Minoli, L.Unusual low-grade cryptosporidial enteritis in AIDS: a case report. Infection 1986; 14: 87–8.
183.Miller, RA, Bronson, MA, Morton, WR. Determination of the infectious dose of Cryptosporidium and the influence of inoculum size on disease severity. A S M Abstracts of Annual Meeting 1986; p 49.
184.Ernest, JA, Blagburn, BL, Lindsay, DS.Infection dynamics of Cryptosporidium parvum (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in neonatal mice (Mus musculus). J Parasital 1986; 72: 796–8.
185.Sherwood, D, Angus, KW, Snodgrass, DR, Tzipori, S.Experimental cryptosporidiosis in laboratory mice. Infect Immun 1982; 38: 471–5.
186.Anderson, BC.Moist heat inactivation of Cryptosporidium sp. AJPH 1985: 75: 1433 4.
187.Anderson, BC.Effect of drying on the infectivity of cryptosporidia-laden calf feces for 3- to 7-day-old mice. Am J Vet Res 1986; 47: 2272–3.
188.Peeters, JE, Mazas, EA, Masschelein, WJ, de Maturana, IVM, Debacker, E.Effect of disinfection of drinking water with ozone or chlorine dioxide on survival or Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Appl Env Microbiol 1989; 55: 1519–22.
189.Upton, SJ, Tilley, ME, Marchin, GL, Fina, LR.Efficacy of a pentaiodide resin on Cryptosporidium parvum (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) oocysts in vitro. J Parasitol 1988; 74: 719–21.
190.Tzipori, S, Campbell, I.Prevalence of Cryptosporidium antibodies in 10 animal species. J Clin Microbiol 1981; 14: 455–6.
191.Campbell, PN, Current, WL.Demonstration of serum antibodies to Cryptosporidium sp. in normal and immunodeficient humans with confirmed infection. J Clin Microbiol 1983; 18: 165–9.
192.Ungar, BLP, Soave, R, Fayer, R, Nash, TE.Enzyme immunoassay detection of immunoglobin M and G antibodies to Cryptosporidium in immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. J Infect Dis 1986; 153: 570–8.
193.Ungar, BLP, Gilman, RH, Lanata, CF, Perez-Schael, I.Seroepidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in two Latin American populations. J Infect Dis 1988; 157: 551–6.
194.Ungar, BLP, Nash, TE.Quantification of specific antibody response to Cryptosporidium antigens by laser densitometry. Infect Immun 1986; 53: 124–8.
195.Hill, BD. Immune responses in Cryptosporidium infections. In: Angus, KW, Blewett, DA, eds. Cryptosporidiosis. Proceedings of the First International Workshop. Edinburgh: Moredun Research Institute, 1988: 97–105.
196.Ungar, BLP, Mulligan, M, Nutman, TB.Serologic evidence of Cryptosporidium infection in US volunteers before and during Peace Corps service in Africa. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 894–7.
197.Luft, BJ, Payne, D, Woodmansee, D, Kim, CW.Characterization of the Cryptosporidium antigens from sporulated oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum. Infect Immun 1987; 55: 2436–41.
198.Lazo, A, Barriga, OO, Redman, DR, Bech-Nielsen, S.Identification by transfer blot of antigens reactive in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) in rabbits immunized and a calf infected with Cryptosporidium. Vet Parasitol 1986; 21: 151–63.
199.Mead, JR, Arrowood, MJ, Current, WL, Sterling, CR.Field inversion gel electrophoretic separation of Cryptosporidium spp. chromosome-sized DNA. J Parasitol 1988; 74: 366–9.
200.Oxford, JS.Biochemical techniques for the genetic and phenotypic analysis of viruses: ‘Molecular epidemiology’. J Hyg 1985; 94: 1–7.
201.Anon. On three stages of amoebic research. Lancet 1986; ii: 1133–4.
202.Bell, JC, Palmer, SR.Control of zoonoses in Britain: past, present, and future. Br Med J 1983; 287: 591–3.
203.Connolly, GM, Dryden, MS, Shanson, DC, Gazzard, BG.Cryptosporidial diarrhoea in AIDS and its treatment. Gut 1988; 29: 593–7.