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Environmental factors associated with childhood norovirus diarrhoea in León, Nicaragua

  • S. BECKER-DREPS (a1), C. C. CUTHBERTSON (a2), F. BUCARDO (a3), J. VINJE (a4), M. PANIAGUA (a3), S. GIEBULTOWICZ (a5), F. ESPINOZA (a3) and M. EMCH (a6)...

Summary

Norovirus is detected in one in five diarrhoea episodes in children, yet little is known about environmental risk factors associated with this disease, especially in low-income settings. The objective of this study was to examine environmental risk factors, and spatial and seasonal patterns of norovirus diarrhoea episodes in children in León, Nicaragua. We followed a population-based cohort of children under age 5 years for norovirus diarrhoea over a 1-year period. At baseline, characteristics of each household were recorded. Households were geocoded and spatial locations of garbage dumps, rivers, and markets were collected. In bivariate analysis we observed younger children and those with animals in their households were more likely to have experienced norovirus episodes. In adjusted models, younger children remained at higher risk for norovirus episodes, but only modest associations were observed with family and environmental characteristics. We next identified symptomatic children living in the same household and within 500 m buffer zones around the household of another child infected with the same genotype. Norovirus diarrhoea episodes peaked early in the rainy season. These findings contribute to our understanding of environmental factors and norovirus infection.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: S. Becker-Dreps, Department of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 590 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7595, USA. (Email: sbd@unc.edu)

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These authors contributed equally to this study.

Footnotes

References

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Supplementary materials

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Environmental factors associated with childhood norovirus diarrhoea in León, Nicaragua

  • S. BECKER-DREPS (a1), C. C. CUTHBERTSON (a2), F. BUCARDO (a3), J. VINJE (a4), M. PANIAGUA (a3), S. GIEBULTOWICZ (a5), F. ESPINOZA (a3) and M. EMCH (a6)...

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