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The effects of oral chemotherapy and stay in hospital on the antibiotic resistance patterns of faecal coliform flora were studied. The coliform flora of 64% of 25 patients who were not receiving antibiotics was sensitive to all drugs tested. Hospitalization alone did not affect this proportion. The administration of tetra-cycline or ampicillin to patients, whether at home or in hospital, significantly increased the percentage of resistant bowel coliforms. Tetracycline showed a significantly greater effect than ampicillin. There was no significant increase in the percentage of patients with resistant flora after treatment with amoxycillin.